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COVID-19 Data Collection Survey Tool User Guide

Effective: 11/3/23

This user guide will assist you in completing the COVID-19 data collection survey .

The survey helps HRSA track health center capacity and the impact of COVID-19 on health center operations, patients, and staff. The information will be used to better understand training and technical assistance, funding, and other health center resource needs. Please note that sub-awardees need to be included in reported results. The intent of the survey is to collect data on ALL activity funded by the Health Center Program. This includes non-patient individuals if Health Center Program funds were used to test or vaccinate them.

Beginning with the report of June 2023 data, this survey is now monthly . (Previously it was biweekly.) Many of the survey questions use the language “in the previous calendar month.” This refers to the calendar month prior to the one in which the survey is taken. For example, in July, health centers will report data for the entire month of June (Thursday, June 1, through Friday, June 30). 

To quickly access the instructions associated with a specific question, please select the question number.

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 5a | 6 | 6a |  6b | 7  | 7a  |  8 | 8a |  8b |  9

Question 1:

Please enter your email address:

Instructions:

Enter a valid email address to which the confirmation of survey submission will be sent.

Question 2:

Please select the State/Territory that your health center is located in:

Choose the State/Territory listed in your Notice of Award in the Electronic Handbooks (EHBs).

Question 3:

Please select your health center name and associated Grant Number:

Choose the health center name and grant number listed in your Notice of Award in the EHBs.

Question 4:

How many of your patients received a test for SARS-CoV-2 virus detection (PCR, antigen) in the previous calendar month ? (Testing refers to specimen collection regardless of where the specimen is processed. Do not include tests for antibody detection (serology).)

 Enter a numerical value excluding commas (ex. 123123). This is the 2021 UDS code:

The phrase “in the previous calendar month” refers to the calendar month prior to the one in which the survey is taken. For example, in July, health centers will report data for the entire month of June (Thursday, June 1, through Friday, June 30).

Question 5:

In the previous calendar month , has your health center distributed test kits received through the HRSA COVID-19 Testing Supply Program?

Select your answer from the list: 

Select “Yes” only if your health center registered to participate in the HRSA COVID-19 Testing Supply Program, received test kits, and then distributed at least one of those test kits. 

If your health center is registered but has NOT yet received test kits, or if your health center has not registered for this program, please select “No.” 

Question 5a:

In the previous calendar month , how many test kits received through the HRSA COVID-19 Testing Supply Program has your health center distributed?

[This question is presented if the response to question 5 is “Yes.” Otherwise, it is skipped.]

This question is presented if the response to question 5 is “Yes.” Otherwise, it is skipped.

Enter the number of test kits you distributed. Only include test kits received through the HRSA COVID-19 Testing Supply Program. Do NOT include test kits received through other sources. 

The phrase “in the previous calendar month” refers to the calendar month prior to the one in which the survey is taken. For example, in July, health centers will report data for the entire month of June (Thursday, June 1, through Friday, June 30).  

Question 6:

In the previous calendar month , has your health center provided COVID-19 oral antiviral medication received through the HRSA Health Center COVID-19 Therapeutics Program to patients?

Instructions: 

Select from the list: 

Answer “No” if your health center is not participating in this program. If you are participating, but did not provide any therapeutics received through the program to patients during this time period, answer “No.”  

Question 6a

By race and ethnicity, in the previous calendar month , how many patients have received a course of COVID-19 oral antiviral medication from the allocation you received through the HRSA Health Center COVID-19 Therapeutics Program?

[Enter the number of patients who received a course of an FDA-authorized COVID-19 oral antiviral medication in the previous calendar month, by race and ethnicity below. 

NOTE: Only report courses allocated under the HRSA Health Center COVID-19 Therapeutics Program.]

[This question is presented if the response to question 6 is “Yes.” Otherwise, it is skipped.]

Hispanic/Latino

  • 1b1 - Native Hawaiian
  • 1b2 - Other Pacific Islander
  • 1c - Black/African American
  • 1d - American Indian/Alaska Native
  • 1f - More than One Race
  • 1g - Unreported/Refused to Report Race

Subtotal Hispanic/Latino 

Non-Hispanic/Latino

  • 2b1 - Native Hawaiian
  • 2b2 - Other Pacific Islander
  • 2c - Black/African American
  • 2d - American Indian/Alaska Native
  • 2f - More than One Race
  • 2g - Unreported/Refused to Report Race

Subtotal Non-Hispanic/Latino

Unreported/Refused to Report Race and Ethnicity

  • h - Unreported/Refused to Report Race and Ethnicity

This question is presented if the response to question 6 is “Yes.” Otherwise, it is skipped. 

Please enter a numerical value excluding commas (ex. 123123) for each race and ethnicity. Only report courses allocated under the HRSA Health Center COVID-19 Therapeutics Program.

Ethnicity determines whether a person identifies as Hispanic or Latino.

Race refers to a person’s self-identification with one or more social groups listed here as 1a-1g and 2a-2g.

All patients must be classified in one of the racial or ethnic categories.

  • Patients who self-report race but do not separately indicate if they are Hispanic or Latino are categorized as non-Hispanic/Latino.
  • Patients who self-report as Hispanic/Latino ethnicity but do not separately select a race are categorized as Hispanic/Latino ethnicity with “Unreported/Refused to Report” race. Do not default these patients to “White,” “American Indian/Alaska Native,” “more than one race,” or any other category.

For more detailed guidance on race/ethnic reporting, please refer to Table 3B: Demographic Characteristics in the 2021 UDS Manual (PDF - 4 MB)

Question 6b

By population type, in the previous calendar month , how many patients have received a course of COVID-19 oral antiviral medication from the allocation you received through the HRSA Health Center COVID-19 Therapeutics Program?

[Enter the number of patients who received a course of an FDA-authorized oral antiviral medication, by population type below. 

NOTE:  Only report  courses allocated under the HRSA Health Center COVID-19 Therapeutics Program.]

  • Migratory/Seasonal Agricultural Workers
  • Individuals Experiencing Homelessness
  • Residents of Public Housing
  • Individuals with Limited English Proficiency
  • Children (less than 18 years)

Please enter a numerical value excluding commas (ex. 123123) for each population. Only report courses allocated under the HRSA Health Center COVID-19 Therapeutics Program.

Here are the UDS definitions for these populations. The first three definitions appear in Appendix H (Glossary) of the 2021 UDS Manual (PDF - 4 MB) ; the last definition appears in Table 3B, line 12. 

Migratory/Seasonal Agricultural Workers refers to individuals whose principal employment is in agriculture, who have been so employed within 24 months, and who establish for the purposes of such employment a temporary abode. This includes dependent family members of the individuals and individuals who are no longer employed in migratory or seasonal agriculture because of age or disability who are within such a catchment area.

For either migratory or seasonal agricultural workers, report patients who meet the definition of agriculture farming in all its branches, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)-developed North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), and include seasonal workers included in codes 111 and 112 and all sub-codes therein, including sub-codes 1151 and 1152.

  • Individuals Experiencing Homelessness refers to a person who lacks housing (without regard to whether the individual is a member of a family), including individuals whose primary residence during the night is a supervised public or private facility that provides temporary living accommodations and individuals who reside in transitional housing. May include people at risk of homelessness, homeless veterans, and veterans at risk of homelessness.
  • Residents of Public Housing refers to an individual residing in public housing agency-developed, -owned, or -assisted low-income housing, including mixed finance projects but excluding housing units with no public housing agency support other than Section 8 housing vouchers.
  • Individuals with Limited English Proficiency refers to individuals who are best served in a language other than English, including those who are best served in sign language. This includes individuals who were served in a second language by a bilingual provider and those who may have brought their own interpreter and patients residing in areas where a language other than English is the dominant language, such as Puerto Rico or the Pacific Islands.
  • Children (less than 18 years) refers to patients who were younger than 18 at the time of treatment.  

Question 7:

In the previous calendar month , has your health center administered COVID-19 vaccines received from any source?

Select “Yes,” if your health center administered even one COVID-19 vaccine dose to a patient. The source of the vaccine does not matter. It could have been ordered through your state, jurisdiction, or HRSA’s program. 

Question 7a:

By race and ethnicity, how many patients received a COVID-19 vaccine dose in the previous calendar month ?

[Enter the number of patients who received an FDA-approved vaccine in the previous calendar month.]

Note: Exclude vaccines administered to health center patients while participating in clinical trials.

[This question is presented if the response to question 7 is “Yes”. Otherwise, it is skipped.]

Subtotal Hispanic/Latino

Note: This question will NOT appear to anyone who answered “No” to question 7.

Enter  the number of patients who received a dose of an FDA-approved vaccine in the previous calendar month by race and ethnicity.

We’re asking about the number of people who received the vaccination anywhere, not just at your health center. Include both health center patients your health center vaccinated and health center patients who may have received the vaccination elsewhere (if you have a record of the immunization). Also include the count of all other individuals (i.e. non-health center patients) to whom you provided the COVID-19 vaccine, with the exception of your staff.

Please enter a numerical value excluding commas (ex. 123123) for each race and ethnicity.

For more detailed guidance on race/ethnic reporting, please refer to Table 3B: Demographic Characteristics in the 2021 UDS Manual (PDF - 4 MB) (PDF - 4.1 MB).

Question 8:

In the previous calendar month , did your health center utilize mobile vans or host pop-up, school-based, and/or family vaccination clinics to enhance access to COVID-19 vaccination sites?

Select your answer from the list:

Mobile van clinics are defined as events requiring the use of a customized motor vehicle.

Pop-up clinics are defined as temporary locations or sites that have been repurposed for the intent of vaccinating patients. Examples include, but are not limited to, gymnasiums, parking lots, and recreation centers. These clinics are typically short-term, for example, an evening or a day.

School-based vaccination clinics include vaccination programs delivered on-site or in coordination with schools or organized child care centers to improve immunization rates in children and adolescents.

Family vaccination clinics are intended for the whole family—offering primary vaccinations and booster shots for everyone eligible. Family vaccination clinics include events hosted on-site and off-site (e.g., mobile van, pop-up, or school-based clinics). 

Question 8a:

In the previous calendar month, how many mobile van, pop-up, school-based, and/or family vaccination clinics did you host for COVID-19 vaccinations? 

[This question is presented only if the answer to 8 is “Yes.” Otherwise, it is skipped.]

This question is presented only if the answer to 8 is “Yes.” Otherwise, it is skipped.

Enter a numerical value. 

Each day should count as separate to your total. The count should reflect unique locations per day.

Here are some examples: 

  • If you hosted a mobile van clinic in the same location on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, you should count that as three (3) toward your total answer. 
  • If you hosted two pop-up clinics in local recreation centers in different locations on the same day, you should count that as two (2) toward your total answer. 
  • If you hosted school-based clinics in two different locations on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, you should count that as six (6) toward your total answer. 

For the number of family vaccination clinics, please count the number of events that meet the definition: Family vaccination clinics are intended for the whole family—offering primary vaccinations and booster shots for everyone eligible.  Family vaccination clinics include events hosted on-site and off-site (e.g., mobile van, pop-up, or school-based clinics). Please use the same guidance as above relating to unique locations per day. 

Question 8b

Of these clinics, how many were hosted in collaboration with a community- or faith-based organization?

This question is presented if the response to question 8 is “Yes.” Otherwise, it is skipped.

Enter a numerical value. Your response should be equal to or less than your response to 8a.  

Examples of community- and faith-based organizations include Women Infants and Children (WIC), Head Start, and other early childhood partners; organizations that serve older adults, people with disabilities, or other targeted sub-populations; groups that focus on housing, food security, employment, education, behavioral health services, or health-related social needs; and other organizations that bring people together, like places of worship and charities. 

Question 9:

Please provide any additional information, comments, or challenges you are experiencing due to COVID-19.

The intent of this question is to allow you to offer any additional relevant information BPHC should know.

  • If you need to explain a previous answer, include the explanation here.
  • If you need to tell us about an issue we did not ask about, enter it here.
  • Do not include any Personally Identifiable Information (PII) or Personal Health Information (PHI) about yourself or others in your response. 

How to Write About Coronavirus in a College Essay

Students can share how they navigated life during the coronavirus pandemic in a full-length essay or an optional supplement.

Writing About COVID-19 in College Essays

Serious disabled woman concentrating on her work she sitting at her workplace and working on computer at office

Getty Images

Experts say students should be honest and not limit themselves to merely their experiences with the pandemic.

The global impact of COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, means colleges and prospective students alike are in for an admissions cycle like no other. Both face unprecedented challenges and questions as they grapple with their respective futures amid the ongoing fallout of the pandemic.

Colleges must examine applicants without the aid of standardized test scores for many – a factor that prompted many schools to go test-optional for now . Even grades, a significant component of a college application, may be hard to interpret with some high schools adopting pass-fail classes last spring due to the pandemic. Major college admissions factors are suddenly skewed.

"I can't help but think other (admissions) factors are going to matter more," says Ethan Sawyer, founder of the College Essay Guy, a website that offers free and paid essay-writing resources.

College essays and letters of recommendation , Sawyer says, are likely to carry more weight than ever in this admissions cycle. And many essays will likely focus on how the pandemic shaped students' lives throughout an often tumultuous 2020.

But before writing a college essay focused on the coronavirus, students should explore whether it's the best topic for them.

Writing About COVID-19 for a College Application

Much of daily life has been colored by the coronavirus. Virtual learning is the norm at many colleges and high schools, many extracurriculars have vanished and social lives have stalled for students complying with measures to stop the spread of COVID-19.

"For some young people, the pandemic took away what they envisioned as their senior year," says Robert Alexander, dean of admissions, financial aid and enrollment management at the University of Rochester in New York. "Maybe that's a spot on a varsity athletic team or the lead role in the fall play. And it's OK for them to mourn what should have been and what they feel like they lost, but more important is how are they making the most of the opportunities they do have?"

That question, Alexander says, is what colleges want answered if students choose to address COVID-19 in their college essay.

But the question of whether a student should write about the coronavirus is tricky. The answer depends largely on the student.

"In general, I don't think students should write about COVID-19 in their main personal statement for their application," Robin Miller, master college admissions counselor at IvyWise, a college counseling company, wrote in an email.

"Certainly, there may be exceptions to this based on a student's individual experience, but since the personal essay is the main place in the application where the student can really allow their voice to be heard and share insight into who they are as an individual, there are likely many other topics they can choose to write about that are more distinctive and unique than COVID-19," Miller says.

Opinions among admissions experts vary on whether to write about the likely popular topic of the pandemic.

"If your essay communicates something positive, unique, and compelling about you in an interesting and eloquent way, go for it," Carolyn Pippen, principal college admissions counselor at IvyWise, wrote in an email. She adds that students shouldn't be dissuaded from writing about a topic merely because it's common, noting that "topics are bound to repeat, no matter how hard we try to avoid it."

Above all, she urges honesty.

"If your experience within the context of the pandemic has been truly unique, then write about that experience, and the standing out will take care of itself," Pippen says. "If your experience has been generally the same as most other students in your context, then trying to find a unique angle can easily cross the line into exploiting a tragedy, or at least appearing as though you have."

But focusing entirely on the pandemic can limit a student to a single story and narrow who they are in an application, Sawyer says. "There are so many wonderful possibilities for what you can say about yourself outside of your experience within the pandemic."

He notes that passions, strengths, career interests and personal identity are among the multitude of essay topic options available to applicants and encourages them to probe their values to help determine the topic that matters most to them – and write about it.

That doesn't mean the pandemic experience has to be ignored if applicants feel the need to write about it.

Writing About Coronavirus in Main and Supplemental Essays

Students can choose to write a full-length college essay on the coronavirus or summarize their experience in a shorter form.

To help students explain how the pandemic affected them, The Common App has added an optional section to address this topic. Applicants have 250 words to describe their pandemic experience and the personal and academic impact of COVID-19.

"That's not a trick question, and there's no right or wrong answer," Alexander says. Colleges want to know, he adds, how students navigated the pandemic, how they prioritized their time, what responsibilities they took on and what they learned along the way.

If students can distill all of the above information into 250 words, there's likely no need to write about it in a full-length college essay, experts say. And applicants whose lives were not heavily altered by the pandemic may even choose to skip the optional COVID-19 question.

"This space is best used to discuss hardship and/or significant challenges that the student and/or the student's family experienced as a result of COVID-19 and how they have responded to those difficulties," Miller notes. Using the section to acknowledge a lack of impact, she adds, "could be perceived as trite and lacking insight, despite the good intentions of the applicant."

To guard against this lack of awareness, Sawyer encourages students to tap someone they trust to review their writing , whether it's the 250-word Common App response or the full-length essay.

Experts tend to agree that the short-form approach to this as an essay topic works better, but there are exceptions. And if a student does have a coronavirus story that he or she feels must be told, Alexander encourages the writer to be authentic in the essay.

"My advice for an essay about COVID-19 is the same as my advice about an essay for any topic – and that is, don't write what you think we want to read or hear," Alexander says. "Write what really changed you and that story that now is yours and yours alone to tell."

Sawyer urges students to ask themselves, "What's the sentence that only I can write?" He also encourages students to remember that the pandemic is only a chapter of their lives and not the whole book.

Miller, who cautions against writing a full-length essay on the coronavirus, says that if students choose to do so they should have a conversation with their high school counselor about whether that's the right move. And if students choose to proceed with COVID-19 as a topic, she says they need to be clear, detailed and insightful about what they learned and how they adapted along the way.

"Approaching the essay in this manner will provide important balance while demonstrating personal growth and vulnerability," Miller says.

Pippen encourages students to remember that they are in an unprecedented time for college admissions.

"It is important to keep in mind with all of these (admission) factors that no colleges have ever had to consider them this way in the selection process, if at all," Pippen says. "They have had very little time to calibrate their evaluations of different application components within their offices, let alone across institutions. This means that colleges will all be handling the admissions process a little bit differently, and their approaches may even evolve over the course of the admissions cycle."

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What you write about COVID-19 in a headline matters

Plus, nursing home staff vaccination rates are low, us mask companies are going broke, why a delta peak may or may not occur soon, and more..

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

This is a study in how to report a story that is both accurate and true. Accurate means you get the facts right. True is when you get the right facts, too.

Look at the below headlines from yesterday. The TV stations focused on deaths after vaccinations while the newspaper websites put the figures in context. The Boston Herald was especially thoughtful.

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

(Screenshots/Google)

The below headline jumps out, but the real news, unfortunately, is a few paragraphs below it. The headline from Modern Healthcare says :

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

(Screenshot/Modern Healthcare)

It is factual and real. I give them that. But the real news, the context that matters comes after you have consumed the alarming headline and opening paragraph, is this:

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

Look, friends, we are in a pandemic. People are scared and doubtful. This is not the time to play games with SEO and headlines.

Nursing home infections are low, but so is the vaccination rate among nursing home workers

Nursing homes, with their high rate of vaccination among residents, are so far faring fairly well in this new COVID-19 outbreak. But everyone is nervous. And for good reason.

During the pandemic, 133,000 nursing home residents died of COVID-19 .  They accounted for nearly one-third of the nation’s pandemic fatalities. Seniors now have the highest vaccination rate of any demographic in America, with more than 80% of nursing home residents fully vaccinated, but the newest data from the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services shows a big gap between patients and staff vaccinations:

  • National percent of vaccinated residents: 81.8%
  • National percent of vaccinated staff: 59.3%

You can get local easily using the government’s vaccination tracker for nursing homes. Here are instructions from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services website:

Search for a nursing home map: Click the map below to search for a nursing home and view data for the individual nursing home, including recent resident and staff vaccination rates.

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

(Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services)

Listing of vaccination rates for individual nursing homes: Click to see a list of every nursing home with recent resident and staff vaccination rates . There’s also a separate tab for nursing homes with a staff vaccination rate of 75% or more.

I want to walk you through a few charts that tell some interesting stories about nursing home patients and staff. First, the good news: New infections among patients is low and not moving much:

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

Now, the less encouraging news: The people taking care of the nursing home patients are getting infected because, as I told you, a large percentage of them is not vaccinated. The increase in new cases is not as bad as we see in the general population … yet. Keep your eye on this.

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

The next two charts will help you to get local and ask questions. I cannot, for the life of me, understand why Florida, a nursing home capital, has one of the lowest percentages of vaccinated nursing home residents. Other lower-vaccinated states on the chart reflect the overall vaccination rate, I suppose.

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

Again, it is odd that states that have large nursing home populations would have such low vaccination rates among employees. You wonder when or if states will require more of these workers to get vaccinated and how many workers would refuse and quit, which nursing homes cannot afford.

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

You can also see the positive test rate for every nursing home in America here .

The New York Times did a deep dive into this topic recently, which is worth a look.

Why US mask-making companies are going broke

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

Used protective masks are prepared for disinfecting at the Battelle N95 decontamination site in Somerville, Mass., on April 11, 2020. Although it will take years for researchers to understand why the pandemic was disproportionately worse in the U.S., early studies that compare different countries’ responses are finding that U.S. shortages of masks, gloves, gowns, shields, testing kits and other medical supplies indeed cost lives. (AP Photo/Michael Dwyer)

American mask-making companies say they can’t make a go of it, even with demand for masks rising again, because Chinese-made masks cost so much less. The Hill reports :

“With the virus getting worse, and we’re not even into the cold months, we’re really worried that this industry won’t be here to help when it’s needed most,” said Brent Dillie, managing partner at Premium-PPE and chairman of the recently formed American Mask Manufacturer’s Association (AMMA). Premium-PPE, like many companies in the small U.S. mask industry, began manufacturing face coverings at the onset of the pandemic as the nation faced a mask shortage driven by China’s export restrictions. The Virginia Beach, Va., firm steadily ramped up its production to 1 million masks per day earlier this year, but it has since laid off most of its employees. “The industry is in a situation where we are needed, there are shortages of masks, but we’re all laying off our employees and sitting on huge inventories of products that we can’t sell,” said Luis Arguello Jr., vice president of DemeTech. DemeTech was the largest surgical mask manufacturer last year before governments stopped buying American masks. The Miami company has since laid off 1,500 workers in its mask division and built up a stockpile of nearly 200 million masks.

This is an interesting story considering how we made such a big deal a year ago about how our essential supplies were all imported and how we needed to get more American manufacturers producing the things we need in an emergency. You can read more from the mask industry itself here .

Can we expect a peak in delta variant virus cases soon? Maybe.

This is by no means certain, but we could see a peak of this latest COVID-19 surge within weeks. There are several reasons why … and some reasons why not.

The United Kingdom saw a rapid surge of COVID-19 delta variant cases followed by a steep and fast decline in cases after a peak.

There is no shortage of experts who say the U.S. and the U.K. are different enough that the data may not apply. Close to 90% of the U.K.’s population has at least one dose of the vaccine. And so many Brits have been exposed to the virus that there may be a high percentage of people who have developed a level of immunity in addition to the vaccines. So when they got infected recently, they recovered faster.

Look at these projections from the University of Washington Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation:

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

Data from Aug. 9, 2021. (Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation)

The group, which has been a clarion for what’s ahead in the pandemic, says we could be in for a sharp and horrific increase or a decline, depending on whether we wear masks and keep getting vaccinated.

The Hill reports :

Justin Lessler, an infectious diseases epidemiologist at the University of North Carolina’s Gillings School of Global Public Health, said so far, the contagious variant has increased faster than any of their models, calling it “a little bit scary.” “Given the rate is going up, it’s either going to peak earlier than we anticipated or peak much, much higher than we anticipated,” Lessler said. “I think probably both are going to be true.” Many Americans have quit wearing masks, and travel is at a peak since the pandemic took grip of the country in March 2020.

Charging unvaccinated college students for testing and supplies

The Associated Press reports, “West Virginia Wesleyan College says it will charge a $750 fee to students who aren’t vaccinated for COVID-19 for the fall semester.” The school says unvaccinated students who come down with the virus will be charged $250 for quarantine space if they do not have a place off campus. The $750 pay for the testing and resources that the school says will be needed to keep the place safe. Unvaccinated students will also have to take weekly tests. We will see if this catches on.

Will you earn less if you work from home?

Reuters has an interesting piece about how some companies are toying with the notion of a stratified pay rate according to where you work. The story includes this passage:

Screenshots of Google’s internal salary calculator seen by Reuters show that an employee living in Stamford, Connecticut — an hour from New York City by train — would be paid 15% less if she worked from home, while a colleague from the same office living in New York City would see no cut from working from home. Screenshots showed 5% and 10% differences in the Seattle, Boston and San Francisco areas. A Google spokesperson said the company will not change an employee’s salary based on them going from office work to being fully remote in the city where the office is located. Employees working in the New York City office will be paid the same as those working remotely from another New York City location, for example, according to the spokesperson.

It seems to me it would make sense if people who worked from home were paid more, not less. Think of the money the company would save in office space costs. Heck, even water and electricity use add up if you spread it across a bunch of employees. And I don’t know about you, but I do not use a company printer or office supplies when working at home. I just buy my own.

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You Can Now Record Your COVID-19 Rapid Test Results. Here’s How To Do It

Thanasis / Getty Images

Key Takeaways

  • MakeMyTestCount is a new website from the National Institutes of Health that allows individuals to record the results of COVID-19 antigen tests taken at home.
  • This site adds to the information that public health departments have about the spread of COVID-19, which previously relied only on data from PCR tests.
  • The site is easy to use and keeps your data anonymous.

Let’s hear it for the return of free rapid tests . At-home COVID tests make it easy for people to know their COVID status in real time, and to know if they should stay home and isolate. One drawback, however, is that rapid test results haven’t historically contributed to the national COVID case count; only PCR tests processed by labs do that. As a result, the United States is always underreporting its COVID cases.

From a public health perspective, is a rapid test really helpful as it could be if you’re the only one who knows its result?

A new website from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is finally allowing people in the United States to anonymously report their rapid test results. Sharing your results on the site, called MakeMyTestCount.org , bolsters the information public health departments have about whether or not the COVID is spreading.

“COVID-19 testing remains an essential tool as the United States heads into the holiday season and people navigate respiratory viruses,” Bruce Tromberg, PhD director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), which supported the development of the new test site, told Verywell in a statement. “While taking a rapid COVID-19 test has become commonplace, test results are not often reported. COVID-19 test results provide valuable data that public health departments can use to assess the needs and modify the responses in the local community, the state, or the nation.”

How to Report Your Rapid Test Result

Great news: You won’t have to install another app to report your test results.

“MakeMyTestCount was launched to provide the public with a safe, secure, quick and easy means of reporting any over-the-counter test result, without having to install a manufacturer-specific app,” Andrew Weitz, PhD, a program director at NIBIB and co-leader of the MakeMyTestCount program, told Verywell.

To report your test your result on MakeMyTestCount.org, start by clicking either “Positive” or “Negative" on the homepage. From there, you’ll be prompted to answer a few more general questions, including which brand of test you took, when you took the test, your age, and your zip code.

There are no questions about your name or street address, though optional personal information questions will be added in January. 

If you choose to, you can answer questions about race, ethnicity, and the sex you were assigned at birth.

How Your Data Will Be Used

When the information you input is sent to the NIH’s database, it is “de-identified,” meaning it’s stripped of any computer code that could identify you or your personal information. That data is sent to the same public health systems that currently receive COVID-19 test results from laboratories and doctors’ offices.

In addition, that data may be shared with other public health researchers.

“Any data that is shared outside the program will be anonymous and not tied to any information that identifies you individually,” Tromberg said.

According to Weitz, other uses for rapid test result information are still being explored.

“The CDC and state/local public health agencies are exploring ways to leverage these data for public health purposes,” he said. “Self-reported test results represent a brand-new data type that has not been traditionally used in public health. It will take some time to understand the limitations of these data and how to use them most effectively.”

How useful this data will be depends on how many people upload their results, which is still a big unknown, said Leana Wen, MD, a research professor of health policy and management at the Milken Institute School of Public Health at George Washington University.

“We won’t know what percentage of test results are logged and whether people are more likely to document positive than negative results,” Wen told Verywell. She believes a better way to use the site would be to keep it specific to certain cohorts, like asking employers or schools who require testing to document the results, especially in tandem with events.

“That way, at least there is a clear denominator in terms of how many total tests are done,” she said.

What Else to Expect

In the coming months, the NIBIB plans to add several features to MakeMyTestCount.org that will make more of an impact on the individual level. According to Krishna Juluru, MD , Presidential Innovation Fellow at NIBIB, this includes:

  • The ability to track your results over time
  • The option to receive a  SMART Health Card  (a QR code containing clinical information) to more easily share test results with a healthcare provider
  • Information to connect with any test-to-treat programs in your area

Is It too Late?

Public health experts who are not part of the NIBIB and weren’t involved with the creation of the new website applaud its ease of use. But three years into the COVID-19 pandemic, finding a way to report rapid test results feels belated.

“The NIH website is trying to partially fill in a major blind spot regarding the number of active COVID-19 cases,” Stephen Kissler, PhD, a research fellow in the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, told Verywell. He said he likes that it only collects the most important information, allows users to opt out of certain questions, and only requires a few clicks.

But he still doesn’t think many people will use it.

“This platform arrived far too late, and with too little fanfare,” Kissler said. “By now, people have already gotten into a testing habit. If this were available and encouraged from early in the pandemic, I think we might have had some real success in getting people to use it to report their tests. As it stands, though, I have trouble believing that many people will use it.”

What This Means For You

COVID-19 continues to circulate in the U.S. and around the world. Testing when you have symptoms, staying home if you test positive, and talking to your healthcare provider about treatment if you are at risk of severe disease all help to make you and your community safer. Recording your results on MakeMyTestCount.com can help improve the information that public health departments have to act quickly if the disease is spreading.

The information in this article is current as of the date listed, which means newer information may be available when you read this. For the most recent updates on COVID-19, visit our  coronavirus news page .

By Fran Kritz Fran Kritz is a freelance healthcare reporter with a focus on consumer health and health policy. She is a former staff writer for Forbes Magazine and U.S. News and World Report.

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  • Elsevier - PMC COVID-19 Collection

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Impact of COVID-19 on the social, economic, environmental and energy domains: Lessons learnt from a global pandemic

a School of Information Systems and Modelling, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia

I.M. Rizwanul Fattah

Md asraful alam.

b School of Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China

A.B.M. Saiful Islam

c Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, College of Engineering, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia

Hwai Chyuan Ong

S.m. ashrafur rahman.

d Biofuel Engine Research Facility, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia

e Tarbiat Modares University, P.O.Box: 14115-111, Tehran, Iran

f Science and Math Program, Asian University for Women, Chattogram 4000, Bangladesh

Md. Alhaz Uddin

g Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia

T.M.I. Mahlia

COVID-19 has heightened human suffering, undermined the economy, turned the lives of billions of people around the globe upside down, and significantly affected the health, economic, environmental and social domains. This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the ecological domain, the energy sector, society and the economy and investigate the global preventive measures taken to reduce the transmission of COVID-19. This analysis unpacks the key responses to COVID-19, the efficacy of current initiatives, and summarises the lessons learnt as an update on the information available to authorities, business and industry. This review found that a 72-hour delay in the collection and disposal of waste from infected households and quarantine facilities is crucial to controlling the spread of the virus. Broad sector by sector plans for socio-economic growth as well as a robust entrepreneurship-friendly economy is needed for the business to be sustainable at the peak of the pandemic. The socio-economic crisis has reshaped investment in energy and affected the energy sector significantly with most investment activity facing disruption due to mobility restrictions. Delays in energy projects are expected to create uncertainty in the years ahead. This report will benefit governments, leaders, energy firms and customers in addressing a pandemic-like situation in the future.

1. Introduction

The newly identified infectious coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was discovered in Wuhan and has spread rapidly since December 2019 within China and to other countries around the globe ( Zhou et al., 2020 ; Kabir et al., 2020 ). The source of SARS-CoV-2 is still unclear ( Gorbalenya et al., 2020 ). Fig. 1 demonstrates the initial timeline of the development of SARS-CoV-2 ( Yan et al., 2020 ). The COVID-19 pandemic has posed significant challenges to global safety in public health ( Wang et al., 2020 ). On 31 st January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO), due to growing fears about the rapid spread of coronavirus, announced a global epidemic and on 11 th March, the disease was recognised as a pandemic ( Chowdhury et al., 2021 ). COVID-19 clinical trials indicate that almost all patients admitted to hospital have trouble breathing and pneumonia-like symptoms ( Holshue et al., 2020 ). Clinical diagnosis has identified that COVID-19 (disease caused by SARS-CoV-2) patients have similar indications to other coronavirus affected patients, e.g. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) ( Wang and Su, 2020 ). The initial indication of a COVID-19 infection is coughing, fever, and short breath, and in the later stages, it can damage the kidney, cause pneumonia, and unexpected death ( Mofijur et al., 2020 ). The vulnerability of the elderly (>80 years of age) is high, with a fatality rate of ~22% of cases infected by COVID-19 ( Abdullah et al., 2020 ). The total number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has reached over 33 million as of 29 th September 2020, with more than 213 countries and regions affected by the pandemic ( Worldometer, 2020 ). Over 1,003,569 people have already passed away ( Worldometer, 2020 ) due to COVID-19. Most countries are currently trying to combat the virus spread by screening for COVID-19 in large numbers and maintaining social distancing policies with an emphasis on the health of human beings.

Fig. 1

The initial stage development timeline for COVID-19 ( Yan et al., 2020 ).

Fig. 2 shows infections and replication cycle of the coronavirus. In extreme cases, the lungs are the most severely damaged organ of a SARS-CoV-2 infected person (host). The alveoli are porous cup-formed small cavities located in the structure of the lungs where the gas exchange of the breathing process take place. The most common cells on the alveoli are the type II cells.

Fig. 2

Infections and replication cycle of the coronavirus ( Acter et al., 2020 ).

It has been reported that travel restrictions play a significant role in controlling the initial spread of COVID-19 ( Chinazzi et al., 2020 ; Aldila et al., 2020 ; Beck and Hensher, 2020 ; Bruinen de Bruin et al., 2020 ; de Haas et al., 2020 ). It has been reported that staying at home is most useful in controlling both the initial and last phase of infectious diseases ( de Haas et al., 2020 ; Cohen, 2020 , Pirouz et al., 2020 ). However, since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, quarantines, entry bans, as well as other limitations have been implemented for citizens in or recent travellers to several countries in the most affected areas ( Sohrabi et al., 2020 ). Also, most of the industries were shutdown to lower mobility. A potential benefit of these measures is the reduction of pollution by the industrial and transportation sector, improving urban sustainability ( Jiang et al., 2021 ). Fig. 3 shows the global responses to lower the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak. There have been negative economic and social implications due to restrictions and decreased travel readiness worldwide ( Leal Filho et al., 2020 ). A fall in the volume of business activity and international events and an increase in online measures could have a long-term impact. The status of global transport and air activity as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic is shown in Fig. 4 ( International Energy Agency (IEA), 2020 ). By March 2020, the average global road haulage activity in regions with lockdowns had declined to almost 50% of the 2019 standard. Air travel has almost completely stopped in certain regions with aviation activity decreasing by over 90% in some European countries. Air activity in China recovered slightly from a low in late February, with lockdown measures somewhat eased. Nevertheless, as lockdowns spread, by the end of Q1 2020, global aviation activity decreased by a staggering 60%.

Fig. 3

Initial preventive measures to lower the COVID-19 outbreak ( Bruinen de Bruin et al., 2020 ).

Fig. 4

Global transport and aviation activity in the first quarter of the year 2020 ( International Energy Agency (IEA), 2020 ).

The spread of COVID-19 continues to threaten the public health situation severely ( Chinazzi et al., 2020 ) and greatly affect the global economy. Labour displacement, business closures and stock crashes are just some of the impacts of this global lockdown during the pandemic. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the effect of COVID-19 will result in a worldwide economic decline in 2020 and a decline in the economic growth to 3% ( International Monetary Fund (IMF) ). COVID-19 has a detrimental impact on economic growth due to two primary factors. In the beginning, the exponential growth of the global epidemic directly contributed to considerable confusion about instability in the financial and capital markets. Secondly, countries have strictly regulated human movement and transport to monitor the growth of the epidemic and significantly reduced economic activity, putting pressure on both consumer and productive economic activity.

Since the 1970s, the link between economic growth and pollution has been an important global concern. The assessment of energy and financial efficiency is usually connected to environmental pollution research. Green practices at a national level, the inclusion of renewable energy, regulatory pressure and the sustainable use of natural resources are associated with environmental sustainability ( Khan et al., 2020 ). One study has shown that environmental pollution increases with economic growth and vice versa ( Cai et al., 2020 ). The strict control over movement and business activity due to COVID-19 has led to an economic downturn, which is in turn, expected to reduce environmental pollution. This paper systematically assesses how the novel coronavirus has had a global effect on society, the energy sector and the environment. This study presents data compiled from the literature, news sources and reports (from February 2020 to July 2020) on the management steps implemented across the globe to control and reduce the impact of COVID-19. The study will offer guidelines for nations to assess the overall impact of COVID-19 in their countries.

2. Impact of COVID-19 on the environmental domain

2.1. waste generation.

The generation of different types of waste indirectly creates a number of environmental concerns ( Schanes et al., 2018 ). The home isolation and pop-up confinement services in countries that have experienced major impacts of COVID-19 are standard practise, as hospitals are given priority to the most serious cases. In some countries, hotels are being used to isolate travellers for at least two weeks on entry. In several countries, such quarantine measures have resulted in consumers increasing their domestic online shopping activity that has increased domestic waste. In addition, food bought online is packaged, so inorganic waste has also increased. Medical waste has also increased. For instance, Wuhan hospitals produced an average of 240 metric tonnes of medical waste during the outbreak compared to their previous average of fewer than 50 tonnes ( Zambrano-Monserrate et al., 2020 ). This unusual situation poses new and major obstacles in the implementation of waste collection services, thus creating a new challenge for waste collection and recycling groups. With the global adaptation to exponential behavioural and social shifts in the face of COVID-19 challenges, municipal services such as waste collection and management need to alter their operations to play an important role in reducing the spread of infectious diseases.

2.1.1. Lifespan of COVID-19 on different waste media

SARS-CoV-2′s transmission activity has major repercussions for waste services. SARS-CoV-2 attacks host cells with ACE2 proteins directly. ACE2 is a cell membrane-associated enzyme in the lungs, heart and kidneys. When all the resources in the host cell are infected and depleted, the viruses leave the cell in the so-called shedding cycle ( Nghiem et al., 2020 ). Clinical and virological evidence suggests that the elimination of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is most relevant early on, right before and within a couple of days of the onset of the illness ( AEMO, 2020 ). Fomites are known as major vectors for the replication of other infectious viruses during the outbreak ( Park et al., 2015 ). Evidence from SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses show that they remain effective for up to a few days in the atmosphere and on a variety of surfaces ( Fig. 5 ). The survival time of SARS-CoV-2 on hard and plastic surfaces is up to three days indicating that waste materials from COVID-19 patients may contain coronavirus and be a source of infection spread ( Chin et al., 2020 ). During the early stages of this epidemic, updated waste disposal methods to tackle COVID-19 were not implemented on the broader community. The concept of clinical waste essentially also applies to waste from contaminated homes and quarantine facilities. Throughout this pandemic, huge volumes of domestic and hospital waste, particularly plastic waste, has been generated. This has already impeded current efforts to reduce plastic waste and decrease its disposal in the environment. More effort should be made to find alternatives to heavily used plastics.

Fig. 5

The lifespan of SARS-CoV-2 on different media ( Chin et al., 2020 ; van Doremalen et al.; 2020 ; Ye et al., 2016 )

2.1.2. Waste recycling service

COVID-19 has already had significant effects on waste recycling. Initially, as the outbreak spread and lockdowns were implemented in several countries, both public authorities and municipal waste management officials had to adjust to the situation quickly. Waste disposal has also been a major environmental problem for all technologically advanced nations, as no clear information was available about the retention time of SARS-CoV-2 ( Liu et al., 2020 ). Recycling is a growing and efficient means of pollution control, saving energy and conserving natural resources ( Ma et al., 2019 ). Recycling projects in various cities have been put on hold due to the pandemic, with officials worried about the possibility of COVID-19 spreading to recycling centres. Waste management has been limited in affected European countries. For example, Italy prohibited the sorting of waste by infected citizens. Extensive waste management during the pandemic is incredibly difficult because of the scattered nature of the cases and the individuals affected. The value of implementing best management practises for waste handling and hygiene to minimise employee exposure to potentially hazardous waste, should be highlighted at this time. Considering the possible role of the environment in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 ( Qu et al., 2020 ), the processing of both household and quarantine facility waste is a crucial point of control. Association of Cities and Regions for sustainable Resource management (ACR+) has reported on the provision of separate collection services to COVID-19 contaminated households and quarantine facilities to protect frontline waste workers in Europe, as shown in Fig. 6 . ACR+ also suggests a 72-hour delay in waste disposal (the possible lifespan of COVID-19 in the environment) ( Nghiem et al., 2020 ). Moreover, the collected waste should be immediately transported to waste incinerators or sites without segregation.

Fig. 6

Recommended waste management during COVID-19 ( ACR+ 2020 ).

2.2. NO 2 emissions

Without the global pandemic, we had naively anticipated that in 2020 global emissions would rise by around 1% on a five-year basis. Instead, the sharp decline in economic activity in response to the current crisis will most probably lead to a modest drop in global greenhouse emissions. The European Space Agency (ESA), with its head office in Paris, France, is an intergovernmental body made up of 22 European countries committed to exploring the international space. To monitor air pollution in the atmosphere, the ESA uses the Copernicus Sentinel-5P Satellite. In addition to the compound contents measurement, the Copernicus Sentinel-5P troposphere monitor (TROPOMI) and other specified precision equipment measure ozone content, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane. Table 1 shows NO 2 emissions data acquisition by ESA using Sentinel-5P across different regions of Europe ( Financial Times, 2020 ).

NO 2 emissions data acquisition by ESA using Sentinel-5P across different regions of Europe ( Financial Times, 2020 ).

Burning fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, gas and other fuels, is the source of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide ( Munawer, 2018 ). The bulk of the NO 2 in cities, however, comes from emissions from motor vehicles (approximately 80%). Other NO 2 sources include petroleum and metal refining, coal-fired electricity, other manufacturing and food processing industries. Some NO 2 is naturally produced by lightning in the atmosphere and from the soil, water, and plants, which, taken together, constitutes not even 1% of the total NO 2 found in the air of our localities. Due to pollution variations as well as changes in weather conditions, the levels of the NO 2 in our atmosphere differ widely every day. Anthropogenic pollution is estimated to contain around 53 million tonnes of NO 2 annually. Nitrogen dioxide, together with nitrogen oxide (NO), are considered the major components of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) ( M Palash et al., 2013 ; Fattah et al., 2013 ). NO, and NO 2 are susceptible to other chemicals and form acid rain that is toxic to the environment ( Mofijur et al., 2013 ; Ashraful et al., 2014 ), WHO lists NO 2 as one of the six typical air contaminants in the atmosphere. For this reason, the amount of NO 2 in the atmosphere is used as a precise measure for determining whether the COVID-19 outbreak affects environmental pollution.

NO 2 is an irritating reddish-brown gas with an unpleasant smell, and when cooled or compressed, it becomes a yellowish-brown liquid ( Wang and Su, 2020 ). NO 2 inflames the lung linings and can decrease lung infection immunity. High levels of NO 2 in the air we breathe can corrode our body's lung tissues . Nitrogen dioxide is a problematic air pollutant because it leads to brown photochemical smog formation, which can have significant impacts on human health ( Huang et al., 2020 ). Brief exposure to high concentrations of NO 2 can lead to respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, bronchitis, flu, etc., and aggravate respiratory illnesses such as asthma. Increased NO 2 levels can have major effects on individuals with asthma, sometimes leading to frequent and intense attacks ( Munawer, 2018 ). Asthmatic children and older individuals with cardiac illness are most vulnerable in this regard. However, its main drawback is that it produces two of the most harmful air pollutants, ozone and airborne particles. Ozone gas affects our lungs and the crops we eat.

2.2.1. NO₂ emissions across different countries

According to the ESA ( European Space Agency (ESA), 2020 ), average levels of NO 2 declined by 40% between 13 th March 2020 to 13 th April 2020. The reduction was 55% compared to the same period in 2019. Fig. 7 compares the 2019-2020 NO 2 concentration ( European Space Agency (ESA), 2020 ). The displayed satellite image was captured with the TROPOMI by ESA satellite Sentinel-5P. The percentage reductions in average NO 2 emissions in European countries during the COVID-19 outbreak from 1 st April to 30 th April 2020 can be seen in Fig. 8 ( Myllyvirta, 2020 ). Portugal, Spain, Norway, Croatia, France, Italy, and Finland are the countries that experienced the largest decrease in NO 2 levels, with 58%, 48%, 47%, 43% and 41%, respectively.

Fig. 7

Comparison of the NO 2 concentration between 2019 and 2020 in Europe ( European Space Agency (ESA), 2020 ).

Fig. 8

Changes in average NO 2 emission in different countries ( Myllyvirta, 2020 ).

The average 10-day animation of NO 2 emissions throughout Europe (from 1 st January to 11 th March 2020), demonstrated the environmental impact of Italy's economic downturn, see Fig. 9 ( European Space Agency (ESA), 2020 ). In the recent four weeks (Last week of February 2020 to the third week of March 2020) the average concentration of NO 2 in Milan, Italy, has been at least 24% less than the previous four weeks. In the week of 16 – 22 March, the average concentration was 21% lower than in 2019 for the same week. Over the last four weeks of January 2020, NO 2 emissions in Bergamo city has been gradually declining. During the week of 16–22 March, the average concentration was 47% less than in 2019. In Rome, NO 2 rates were 26–35% lower than average in the last four weeks (third week of January 2020 to the third week of February 2020) than they were during the same week of 2019 ( Atmosphere Monitoring Service, 2020 ).

Fig. 9

Changes of NO 2 emission (a) over entire Italy (b) capital city (c) other cities ( European Space Agency (ESA), 2020 ; Atmosphere Monitoring Service, 2020 ).

Fig. 10 shows a comparison of NO 2 volumes in Spain in March 2019 and 2020. As per ( European Space Agency (ESA), 2020 ), Spain's NO 2 pollutants decreased by up to 20–30% due to lockdown, particularly across big cities like Madrid, Barcelona, and Seville. ESA Sentinel-5P captured the satellite image using TROPOMI. Satellite images of the 10 days between 14 th and 25 th March 2020 show that NO 2 tropospheric concentration in the areas of Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, and Murcia ranges from 0–90 mg/m 3 . The NO 2 tropospheric concentration for Seville is almost 0 mg/m 3 for the same time. For March 2019, the average NO 2 tropospheric concentration for the Madrid area was between 90 and 160 mg/m 3 . At the same time, the range of NO 2 tropospheric concentration for Barcelona, Valencia, and Seville area was between 90–140 mg/m 3 , 90-130 mg/m 3 , and 30–50 mg/m 3 , respectively.

Fig. 10

Comparison between before and after lockdown NO 2 emissions in Spain ( European Space Agency (ESA), 2020 ).

Fig. 11 shows the reduction in the amount of NO 2 emissions in France in March 2019 and 2020 ( European Space Agency (ESA), 2020 ). In France, levels of NO 2 have been reduced by 20% to 30%. The ESA Sentinel-5P satellite image was captured with the TROPOMI. In Paris and other major cities, the emission levels of NO 2 considerably lowered due to lockdown. The three major areas of France where NO 2 tropospheric concentration was significant are Paris, Lyon, Marseille and their surroundings. Satellite images of the ten days between 14 th and 25 th March 2020 show that NO 2 tropospheric concentration of the Paris, Lyon, Marseille areas ranges 30–90 mg/m 3 , 20–40 mg/m 3 and 40–80 mg/m 3 , respectively. For March 2019, the average NO 2 tropospheric concentration for the same areas was reported as 100–160 mg/m 3 , 30–60 mg/m 3, and 90–140 mg/m 3 , respectively.

Fig. 11

Comparison of NO 2 emissions in France before and after lockdown ( European Space Agency (ESA), 2020 ).

Various industries across the UK have been affected by COVID-19, which has influenced air contamination. As shown in Fig. 12 , there were notable drops in the country's NO 2 emissions on the first day of quarantine ( Khoo, 2020 ). Edinburgh showed the most significant reduction. The average NO 2 emissions on 26 th March 2020, were 28 μg/m 3 while on the same day of 2019, this was 74 μg/m 3 ( Khoo, 2020 ). The second biggest reduction was observed in London Westminster where emissions reduced from 58 µg/m 3 to 30 µg/m 3 . Not all cities have seen such a significant decrease, with daily air pollution reducing by 7 μg/m 3 compared to the previous year in Manchester Piccadilly, for example ( Statista, 2020 ).

Fig. 12

(a) Changes in NO 2 emissions in the UK during lockdown ( European Space Agency (ESA), 2020 ); (b) comparison of NO 2 emissions in 2019 and 2020 ( Khoo, 2020 ).

2.3. PM emission

The term particulate matter, referred to as PM, is used to identify tiny airborne particles. PM forms in the atmosphere when pollutants chemically react with each other. Particles include pollution, dirt, soot, smoke, and droplets. Pollutants emitted from vehicles, factories, building sites, tilled areas, unpaved roads and the burning of fossil fuels also contribute to PM in the air ( Baensch-Baltruschat et al., 2020 ). Grilling food (by burning leaves or gas grills), smoking cigarettes, and burning wood on a fireplace or stove also contribute to PM. The aerodynamic diameter is considered a simple way to describe PM's particle size as these particles occur in various shapes and densities. Particulates are usually divided into two categories, namely, PM 10 that are inhalable particles with a diameter of 10 μm or less and PM 2.5 which are fine inhalable particle with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less. PM 2.5 exposure causes relatively severe health problems such as non-fatal heart attacks, heartbeat irregularity, increased asthma, reduced lung function, heightened respiratory symptoms, and premature death ( Weitekamp et al., 2020 ).

PM 2.5 also poses a threat to the environment, including lower visibility (haze) in many parts of the globe. Particulates can be transported long distances then settle on the ground or in water sources. In these contexts and as a function of the chemical composition, PM 2.5 may cause acidity in lakes and stream water, alter the nutrient balance in coastal waters and basins, deplete soil nutrients and damage crops on farms, affect the biodiversity in the ecosystem, and contribute to acid rain. This settling of PM, together with acid rain, can also stain and destroy stones and other materials such as statues and monuments, which include valuable cultural artefacts ( Awad et al., 2020 ).

2.3.1. PM emission in different countries

Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, PM emission in most countries has been reduced ( Chatterjee et al., 2020 ; Ghahremanloo et al., 2021 ; Gualtieri et al., 2020 ; Sharifi and Khavarian-Garmsir, 2020 ; Srivastava, 2020 ). Fig. 13 shows the impact of COVID19 on PM emission in a number of some countries around the world ( Myllyvirta, 2020 ). The largest reductions in PM pollution took place in Portugal, with 55%, followed by Norway, Sweden, and Poland with reductions of 32%, 30%, and 28%, respectively. Spain, Poland, and Finland recorded PM emission reductions of 19%, 17% and 16%, respectively. Both Romania and Croatia recorded no changes in PM level, with Switzerland and Hungary recording about a 3% increase in PM emission.

Fig. 13

Reduction of PM emission in different countries ( Myllyvirta, 2020 ).

PM emissions have been significantly reduced during the epidemic in most regions of Italy. Fig. 14 illustrates the changes in COVID-19 containment emissions before and after a lockdown in major cities in Italy. According to a recent study by Sicard et al. ( Sicard et al., 2020 ), lockdown interventions have had a greater effect on PM emission. They found that confinement measures reduce PM 10 emissions in all major cities by “around 30% to 53%” and “around 35% to 56%”.

Fig. 14

Comparison of PM emission in Italy (a) PM 2.5 emission (b) Changes of PM 2.5 emission (c) PM 10 emission (d) Changes of PM 10 emission ( Sicard et al., 2020 ).

2.4. Noise emission

Noise is characterised as an undesirable sound that may be produced from different activities, e.g. transit by engine vehicles and high volume music. Noise can cause health problems and alter the natural condition of ecosystems. It is among the most significant sources of disruption in people and the environment ( Zambrano-Monserrate and Ruano, 2019 ). The European Environment Agency (EEA) states that traffic noise is a serious environmental problem that negatively affects the health and security of millions of citizens in Europe. The consequences of long-term exposure to noise include sleep disorders, adverse effects on the heart and metabolic systems, and cognitive impairment in children. The EEA estimates that noise pollution contributes to 48,000 new cases of heart disease and 12,000 early deaths per year. They also reported chronic high irritation for 22 million people and a chronic high level of sleep disorder for 6.5 million people ( Lillywhite, 2020 ).

Most governments have imposed quarantine measures that require people to spend much more time at home. This has considerably reduced the use of private and public transport. Commercial activities have almost completely stopped. In most cities in the world, these changes have caused a significant decline in noise levels. This was followed by a significant decline in pollution from contaminants and greenhouse gas emissions. Noise pollution from sources like road, rail or air transport has been linked to economic activity. Consequently, we anticipate that the levels of transport noise will decrease significantly due to the decreased demand for mobility in the short term ( Ro, 2020 ).

For example, it was obvious that environmental noise in Italy was reduced after 8 th March 2020 (the lockdown start date) due to a halt in commercial and recreational activities. A seismograph facility in Lombardy city in Italy that was severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic indicated how the quarantine measures reduce both traffic and noise emissions. The comparison of the 24-hour seismic noise data before and after the lockdown period indicates a considerable drop in environmental noise in Italy ( Bressan, 2020 ).

3. Impact of COVID-19 on the socio-economic domain

COVID-19 has created a global health crisis where countless people are dying, human suffering is spreading, and people's lives are being upended ( Nicola et al., 2020 ). It is not only just a health crisis but also a social and economic crisis, both of which are fundamental to sustainable development ( Pirouz et al., 2020 ). On 11 th March 2020, when WHO declared a global pandemic, 118,000 reported cases spanning 114 countries with over 4,000 fatalities had been reported. It took 67 days from the first reported case to reach 100,000 cases, 11 days for the second 100,000, and just four days for the third ( United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 2020 ). This has overwhelmed the health systems of even the richest countries with doctors being forced to make the painful decision of who lives and who dies. The COVID-19 pandemic has pushed the world into uncertainty and countries do not have a clear exit strategy in the absence of a vaccine. This pandemic has affected all segments of society. However, it is particularly damaging to vulnerable social groups, including people living in poverty, older persons, persons with disabilities, youths, indigenous people and ethnic minorities. People with no home or shelter such as refugees, migrants, or displaced persons will suffer disproportionately, both during the pandemic and in its aftermath. This might occur in multiple ways, such as experiencing limited movement, fewer employment opportunities, increased xenophobia, etc. The social crisis created by the COVID-19 pandemic may also increase inequality, discrimination and medium and long-term unemployment if not properly addressed by appropriate policies.

The protection measures taken to save lives are severely affecting economies all over the world. As discussed previously, the key protection measure adopted universally is the lockdown, which has forced people to work from home wherever possible. Workplace closures have disrupted supply chains and lowered productivity. In many instances, governments have closed borders to contain the spread. Other measures such as travel bans and the prohibition of sporting events and other mass gatherings are also in place. In addition, measures such as discouraging the use of public transport and public spaces, for example, restaurants, shopping centres and public attractions are also in place in many parts of the world. The situation is particularly dire in hospitality-related sectors and the global travel industry, including airlines, cruise companies, casinos and hotels which are facing a reduction in business activity of more than 90% ( Fernandes, 2020 ). The businesses that rely on social interactions like entertainment and tourism are suffering severely, and millions of people have lost their jobs. Layoffs, declines in personal income, and heightened uncertainty have made people spend less, triggering further business closures and job losses ( Ghosh, 2020 ).

A key performance indicator of economic health is Gross Domestic Product (GDP), typically calculated on a quarterly or annual basis. IMF provides a GDP growth estimate per quarter based on global economic developments during the near and medium-term. According to its estimate, the global economy is projected to contract sharply by 3% in 2020, which is much worse than the 2008 global financial crisis ( International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2020 ). The growth forecast was marked down by 6% in the April 2020 World Economic Outlook (WEO) compared to that of the October 2019 WEO and January 2020 WEO. Most economies in the advanced economy group are expected to contract in 2020, including the US, Japan, the UK, Germany, France, Italy and Spain by 5.9%, 5.4%, 6.5%, 7.0%, 7.2%, 9.1%, and 8.0% respectively. Fig. 15 a shows the effect of COVID-19 on the GDP of different countries around the globe. On the other hand, economies of emerging market and developing economies, excluding China, are projected to contract by only 1.0% in 2020. The economic recovery in 2021 will depend on the gradual rolling back of containment efforts in the latter part of 2020 that will restore consumer and investor confidence. According to the April 2020 WEO, the level of GDP at the end of 2021 in both advanced and emerging market and developing economies is expected to remain below the pre-virus baseline (January 2020 WEO Update), as shown in Fig. 15 b.

Fig. 15

(a) Quarterly World GDP. 2019:Q1 =100, dashed line indicates estimates from January 2020 WEO; (b) GDP fall due to lockdown in selected countries.

A particular example of a country hardest hit by COVID-19 is Italy. During the early days of March, the Italian government imposed quarantine orders in major cities that locked down more than seventeen million people ( Andrews, 2020 ). The mobility index data by Google for Italy shows there has been a significant reduction in mobility (and therefore economic activity) across various facets of life. The reported decline of mobility in retail and recreation, grocery and pharmacy, transit stations and workplaces were 35%, 11%, 45% and 34% respectively ( Rubino, 2020 ). The Italian economy suffered great financial damage from the pandemic. The tourism, and hospitality sectors were among those most severely affected by foreign countries prohibiting travel to and from Italy, and by the government's national lockdowns in early March ( Brunton, 2020 ). A March 2020 study in Italy showed that about 99% of the companies in the housing and utility sector said the epidemic had affected their industry. In addition, transport and storage was the second most affected sector. Around 83% of companies operating in this sector said that their activities had been affected by the coronavirus ( Statista, 2020 ) pandemic. In April 2020, Italian Minister Roberto Gualtieri estimated a 6% reduction in the GDP for the year 2020 ( Bertacche et al., 2020 ). The government of Italy stopped all unnecessary companies, industries and economic activities on 21 st March 2020. Therefore The Economist estimates a 7% fall in GDP in 2020 ( Horowitz, 2020 ). The Economist predicted that the Italian debt-to-GDP ratio would grow from 130% to 180% by the end of 2020 ( Brunton, 2020 ) and it is also assumed that Italy will have difficulty repaying its debt ( Bertacche et al., 2020 ).

4. Impact of COVID-19 on the energy domain

COVID-19 has not only impacted health, society and the economy but it has also had a strong impact on the energy sector ( Chakraborty and Maity, 2020 ; Abu-Rayash and Dincer, 2020 ). World energy demand fell by 3.8% in the first quarter (Q1) of 2020 compared with Q1 2019. In Q1 of 2020, the global coal market was heavily impacted by both weather conditions and the downturn in economic activity resulting in an almost 8% fall compared to Q1 2019. The fall was primarily in the electricity sector as a result of substantial declines in demand (-2.5%) and competitive advantages from predominantly low-cost natural gas. The market for global oil has plummeted by almost 5%. Travel bans, border closures, and changes in work routines significantly decreased the demand for the use of personal vehicles and air transport. Thus rising global economic activity slowed down the use of fuel for transportation ( Madurai Elavarasan et al., 2020 ). In Q1 2020, the output from nuclear energy plants decreased worldwide, especially in Europe and the US, as they adjusted for lower levels of demand. Demand for natural gas dropped significantly, by approximately 2% in Q1 2020, with the biggest declines in China, Europe, and the United States. In the Q1 2020, the need for renewable energy grew by around 1.5%, driven in recent years by the increasing output of new wind and solar plants. Renewable energy sources substantially increased in the electricity generation mix, with record hourly renewable energy shares in Belgium, Italy, Germany, Hungary, and East America. The share of renewable energy sources in the electricity generation mix has increased. Table 2 shows the effect of COVID-19 outbreak on the energy demand around the world.

Impact of COVID-19 on global energy sector ( AEMO, 2020 ; CIS Editorial, 2020 ; Eurelectric, 2020 ; Livemint, 2020 ; Renewable Energy World, 2020 ; S&P Global, 2020 ; Madurai Elavarasan et al., 2020 ).

Different areas have implemented lockdown of various duration. Therefore, regional energy demand depends on when lockdowns were introduced and how lockdowns influence demand in each country. In Korea and Japan, the average impact on demand is reduced to less than 10%, with lower restrictions. In China, where the first COVID-19 confinement measures were introduced, not all regions faced equally stringent constraints. Nevertheless, virus control initiatives have resulted in a decline of up to 15% in weekly energy demand across China. In Europe, moderate to complete lockdowns were more radical. On average, a 17% reduction in weekly demand was experienced during temporary confinement periods. India's complete lockdown has cut energy requirements by approximately 30%, which indicates yearly energy needs are lowered by 0.6% for each incremental lockdown week ( International Energy Agency (IEA) 2020 ).

The International Energy Agency (IEA) has predicted an annual average decline in oil production of 9% in 2020, reflecting a return to 2012 levels. Broadly, as electricity demand has decreased by about 5% throughout the year, coal production may fall by 8%, and the output of coal-fired electricity generation could fall by more than 10%. During the entire year, gas demand may fall far beyond Q1 2020 due to a downward trend in power and industrial applications. Nuclear energy demand will also decrease in response to reduced electricity demand. The demand for renewable energies should grow due to low production costs and the choice of access to many power systems. Khan et al. (2020) reported that international trade is significantly and positively dependent on renewable energy. In addition, sustainable growth can be facilitated through the consumption of renewable energy which improves the environment, enhances national image globally and opens up international trade opportunities with environmentally friendly countries ( Khan et al., 2021 ). As such, policies that promote renewables can result in economic prosperity, create a better environment as well as meet critical goals for sustainable development ( Khan et al., 2020 ).

5. Preventive measures to control COVID-19 outbreak

COVID-19 is a major crisis needing an international response. Governments will ensure reliable information is provided to assist the public in combating this pandemic. Community health and infection control measures are urgently needed to reduce the damage done by COVID-19 and minimise the overall spread of the virus. Self-defence techniques include robust overall personal hygiene, face washing, refraining from touching the eyes, nose or mouth, maintaining physical distance and avoiding travel. In addition, different countries have already taken preventive measures, including the implementation of social distancing, medicine, forestation and a worldwide ban on wildlife trade. A significant aim of the community health system is to avoid SARS-CoV-2 transmission by limiting large gatherings. COVID-19 is transmitted by direct communication from individual to individual. Therefore, the key preventive technique is to limit mass gatherings. Table 3 shows the impact of lockdown measures on the recovery rate of COVID-19 infections. The baseline data for this table is the median value, for the corresponding day of the week, during the 5-week period 3 rd January to 6 th February 2020.

Mobility index report of different countries ( Ghosh, 2020 ; Johns Hopkins University (JHU), 2020 ; Worldometer, 2020 ).

As of today, no COVID-19 vaccine is available. Worldwide scientists are racing against time to develop the COVID-19 vaccine, and WHO is now monitoring more than 140 vaccine candidates. As of 29 th September 2020, about 122 candidates have been pre-clinically checked, i.e. determining whether an immune response is caused when administering the vaccine to animals ( Biorender, 2020 ). About 45 candidates are in stage I where tests on a small number of people are conducted to decide whether it is effective ( Biorender, 2020 ). About 29 candidates are in Phase II where hundreds of people are tested to assess additional health issues and doses ( Biorender, 2020 ). Only 14 candidates are currently in Phase III, where thousands of participants are taking a vaccine to assess any final safety concerns, especially with regard to side effects ( Biorender, 2020 ). 3 candidates are in Phase IV, where long-term effects of the vaccines on a larger population is observed ( Biorender, 2020 ). The first generation of COVID-19 vaccines is expected to gain approval by the end of 2020 or in early 2021 ( Peiris and Leung, 2020 ). It is anticipated that these vaccines will provide immunity to the population. These vaccines can also reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and lead to a resumption of a pre-COVID-19 normal. Table 4 shows the list of vaccines that have been passed in the pre-clinical stage. In addition, according to the COVID-19 vaccine and therapeutics tracker, there are 398 therapeutic drugs in development. Of these, 83 are in the pre-clinical phase, 100 in Phase I, 224 in Phase II, 119 in Phase III and 46 in Phase IV ( Biorender, 2020 ).

List of vaccines that have passed the pre-clinical stage ( Biorender, 2020 ).

In addition to the above, forestation and a worldwide ban on wildlife trade can also play a significant role in reducing the spread of different viruses. More than 30% of the ground area is covered with forests. The imminent increase in population contributes to deforestation in agriculture or grazing for food, industries and property. The rise in ambient temperature, sea levels and extreme weather events affects not only the land and environment but also public health ( Ruscio et al., 2015 ; Arora and Mishra, 2020 ). Huge investment has been made into treatments, rehabilitation and medications to avoid the impact of this epidemic. However, it is important to focus on basic measures, e.g. forestation and wildlife protection. The COVID-19 infection was initially spread from the Seafood Market, Wuhan, China. Therefore, China temporarily banned wildlife markets in which animals are kept alive in small cages. It has been reported that 60% of transmittable diseases are animal-borne, 70% of which are estimated to have been borne by wild animals ( Chakraborty and Maity, 2020 ). Deforestation is also related to various kinds of diseases caused by birds, bats, etc. ( Afelt et al., 2018 ). For example, COVID-19 is a bat-borne disease that is transmitted to humans. Therefore, several scientists have advised various countries to ban wildlife trade indefinitely so that humans can be protected from new viruses and global pandemics like COVID-19.

6. Conclusion

In this article, comprehensive analyses of energy, environmental pollution, and socio-economic impacts in the context of health emergency events and the global responses to mitigate the effects of these events have been provided. COVID-19 is a worldwide pandemic that puts a stop to economic activity and poses a severe risk to overall wellbeing. The global socio-economic impact of COVID-19 includes higher unemployment and poverty rates, lower oil prices, altered education sectors, changes in the nature of work, lower GDPs and heightened risks to health care workers. Thus, social preparedness, as a collaboration between leaders, health care workers and researchers to foster meaningful partnerships and devise strategies to achieve socio-economic prosperity, is required to tackle future pandemic-like situations. The impact on the energy sector includes increased residential energy demand due to a reduction in mobility and a change in the nature of work. Lockdowns across the globe have restricted movement and have placed people primarily at home, which has, in turn, decreased industrial and commercial energy demand as well as waste generation. This reduction in demand has resulted in substantial decreases in NO 2, PM, and environmental noise emissions and as a consequence, a significant reduction in environmental pollution. Sustainable urban management that takes into account the positive benefits of ecological balance is vital to the decrease of viral infections and other diseases. Policies that promote sustainable development, ensuring cities can enforce recommended measures like social distancing and self-isolation will bring an overall benefit very quickly. The first generation of COVID-19 vaccines is expected to gain approval by the end of 2020 or in early 2021, which will provide immunity to the population. It is necessary to establish preventive epidemiological models to detect the occurrence of viruses like COVID-19 in advance. In addition, governments, policymakers, and stakeholders around the world need to take necessary steps, such as ensuring healthcare services for all citizens, supporting those who are working in frontline services and suffering significant financial impacts, ensuring social distancing, and focussing on building a sustainable future. It is also recommended that more investment is required in research and development to overcome this pandemic and prevent any similar crisis in the future.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Editor: Dr. Syed Abdul Rehman Khan

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COVID-19 vaccines: Get the facts

Looking to get the facts about COVID-19 vaccines? Here's what you need to know about the different vaccines and the benefits of getting vaccinated.

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause illness, you might have questions about COVID-19 vaccines. Find out about the different types of COVID-19 vaccines, how they work, the possible side effects, and the benefits for you and your family.

COVID-19 vaccine benefits

What are the benefits of getting a covid-19 vaccine.

Staying up to date with a COVID-19 vaccine can:

  • Help prevent serious illness and death due to COVID-19 for both children and adults.
  • Help prevent you from needing to go to the hospital due to COVID-19 .
  • Boost your body's protection, also called immunity, against catching the virus that causes COVID-19 .
  • Be a safer way to protect yourself compared to getting sick with the virus that causes COVID-19 .

How much protection a COVID-19 vaccine gives depends on different factors. Factors that can affect how much you're protected with a vaccine can include your age, if you've had COVID-19 before or if you have medical conditions such as cancer.

How well a COVID-19 vaccine protects you also depends on how the virus that causes COVID-19 changes and what variants the vaccine protects against. Your level of protection also depends on timing, such as when you got the shot.

Talk to your healthcare team about how you can stay up to date with COVID-19 vaccines.

Should I get the COVID-19 vaccine even if I've already had COVID-19?

Yes. After you've had COVID-19 , getting vaccinated can boost your body's protection against catching the virus that causes COVID-19 another time.

Getting COVID-19 or getting a COVID-19 vaccination gives you protection, also called immunity, from being infected again with the virus that causes COVID-19 . But over time, that protection seems to fade. Getting COVID-19 again may cause serious illness or medical complications, especially for people with risk factors for severe COVID-19 .

Researchers continue to study what happens when someone has COVID-19 a second time. Reinfections are generally milder than the first infection. But severe illness can still happen. Some people may see their risk of having to go to the hospital and having medical problems such as diabetes go up with each COVID-19 infection.

Research has found that people who have had COVID-19 and then have had all of the suggested COVID-19 vaccinations are less likely to be treated in the hospital due to COVID-19 than people who are not vaccinated or who haven't had all the suggested shots. This protection wears off in the months after getting the vaccine.

Also, because the virus that causes COVID-19 can change, also called mutate, a vaccination with the latest strain, or variant, that is spreading or expected to spread can help keep you from getting sick again.

Safety and side effects of COVID-19 vaccines

What covid-19 vaccines have been authorized or approved.

The COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States are:

  • 2023-2024 Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, available for people age 6 months and older.
  • 2023-2024 Moderna COVID-19 vaccine, available for people age 6 months and older.
  • 2023-2024 Novavax COVID-19 vaccine, available for people age 12 years and older.

In general, people age 5 and older with typical immune systems can get any vaccine that is approved or authorized for their age. They usually don't need to get the same vaccine each time.

Some people should get all their vaccine doses from the same vaccine maker, including:

  • Children ages 6 months to 4 years.
  • People age 5 years and older with weakened immune systems.
  • People age 12 and older who have had one shot of the Novavax vaccine should get the second Novavax shot in the two-dose series.

Talk to your healthcare professional if you have any questions about the vaccines for you or your child. Your healthcare team can help you if:

  • The vaccine you or your child got earlier isn't available.
  • You don't know which vaccine you or your child received.
  • You or your child started a vaccine series but couldn't finish it due to side effects.

At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 vaccines were needed right away. But the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) vaccine approval process can take years.

To provide vaccines sooner, the FDA gave emergency use authorization to COVID-19 vaccines based on less data than is typically required. But the data still has to show that the vaccines are safe and effective.

In August 2022, the FDA authorized an update to the Moderna and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines. Both included the original and omicron variants of the virus that causes COVID-19 .

In June 2023, the FDA directed vaccine makers to update COVID-19 vaccines. The vaccines were changed to target a strain of the virus that causes COVID-19 called XBB.1.5.

In September and October 2023, the FDA authorized the use of the updated 2023-2024 COVID-19 vaccines made by Novavax, Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech.

Vaccines with FDA emergency use authorization or approval include:

2023-2024 Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. This vaccine was first tested against the original strain of the COVID-19 virus. That strain began spreading at the end of 2019. In December 2020, the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine two-dose series was found to be both safe and 91% to 95% effective in preventing COVID-19 infection in people age 18 and older. This data helped predict how well the vaccines would work for younger people. The effectiveness varied by age.

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is approved under the name Comirnaty for people age 12 and older. It is authorized for people age 6 months to 11 years. The number of shots in this vaccination series varies based on a person's age and COVID-19 vaccination history.

2023-2024 Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. This vaccine also was first tested against the original strain of the virus that causes COVID-19 . In December 2020, the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine was found to be both safe and about 93% effective in preventing infection among study volunteers, all age 18 or older.

Based on the comparison between people who got COVID-19 in the placebo group, the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine was 98% effective at preventing serious COVID-19 illness. Vaccine effect was predicted for younger people based on that clinical trial data as well.

The vaccine is approved under the name Spikevax for people age 12 and older. The vaccine is authorized for use in people age 6 months to 11 years. The number of shots needed varies based on a person's age and COVID-19 vaccination history.

  • 2023-2024 Novavax COVID-19 vaccine, adjuvanted. This vaccine is available under an emergency use authorization for people age 12 and older. It requires two shots, given 3 to 8 weeks apart. Research done before the spread of the delta and omicron variants has shown that the vaccine is 90% effective at preventing mild, moderate and severe disease with COVID-19 . For people age 65 and older, the vaccine is 79% effective.

How do the COVID-19 vaccines work?

Both the Pfizer-BioNTech and the Moderna COVID-19 vaccines use genetically engineered messenger RNA (mRNA). Coronaviruses have a spikelike structure on their surface called an S protein. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines give your cells instructions for how to make a harmless piece of an S protein.

After vaccination, your muscle cells begin making the S protein pieces and displaying them on cell surfaces. The immune system recognizes the protein and begins building an immune response and making antibodies. After delivering instructions, the mRNA is immediately broken down. It never enters the nucleus of your cells, where your DNA is kept.

The Novavax COVID-19 , adjuvanted vaccine is a protein subunit vaccine. These vaccines include only the parts (proteins) of a virus that best stimulate your immune system. The Novavax COVID-19 vaccine contains harmless S proteins. It also has an ingredient called an adjuvant that helps with your immune system response.

Once your immune system recognizes the S proteins, this vaccine creates antibodies and defensive white blood cells. If you later become infected with the COVID-19 virus, the antibodies will fight the virus.

Protein subunit COVID-19 vaccines don't use any live virus and can't cause you to become infected with the COVID-19 virus. The protein pieces also don't enter the nucleus of your cells, where your DNA is kept.

Can a COVID-19 vaccine give you COVID-19?

No. The COVID-19 vaccines currently being developed and used in the U.S. don't use the live virus that causes COVID-19 . Because of this, the COVID-19 vaccines can't cause you to become sick with COVID-19 or shed any vaccine parts.

It can take a few weeks for your body to build immunity after getting a COVID-19 vaccination. As a result, it's possible that you could become infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 just before or after being vaccinated.

What are the possible general side effects of a COVID-19 vaccine?

Many people have no side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine. For those who get them, most side effects go away in a few days. A COVID-19 vaccine can cause mild side effects after the first or second dose, including:

  • Pain, redness or swelling where the shot was given.
  • Muscle pain.
  • Joint pain.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Feeling unwell.
  • Swollen lymph nodes.

Babies ages 6 months through 3 years old also might cry, feel sleepy or lose their appetite after vaccination. Children in this age group also may have the common side effects seen in adults. These include pain, redness or swelling where the shot was given, fever, or swollen lymph nodes.

A healthcare team watches you for 15 minutes after getting a COVID-19 vaccine to see if you have an allergic reaction.

If the redness or tenderness where the shot was given gets worse after 24 hours or you're worried about any side effects, contact your healthcare professional.

Are there any long-term side effects of the COVID-19 vaccines?

The vaccines that help protect against COVID-19 are safe and effective. The vaccines were tested in clinical trials. People continue to be watched for rare side effects, even after more than 650 million doses have been given in the United States.

Side effects that don't go away after a few days are thought of as long term. Vaccines rarely cause any long-term side effects.

If you're concerned about side effects, safety data on COVID-19 vaccines is reported to a national program called the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System in the U.S. This data is available to the public. The CDC also has created v-safe, a smartphone-based tool that allows users to report COVID-19 vaccine side effects.

If you have other questions or concerns about your symptoms, talk to your healthcare professional.

Can COVID-19 vaccines affect the heart?

In some people, COVID-19 vaccines can lead to heart complications called myocarditis and pericarditis. Myocarditis is the swelling, also called inflammation, of the heart muscle. Pericarditis is the swelling, also called inflammation, of the lining outside the heart.

The risk of myocarditis or pericarditis after a COVID-19 vaccine is rare. These conditions have been reported after a COVID-19 vaccination with any of the three available vaccines. Most cases have been reported in males ages 12 to 39.

If you or your child develops myocarditis or pericarditis after getting a COVID-19 vaccine, talk to a healthcare professional before getting another dose of the vaccine.

Of the cases reported, the problem happened more often after the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and typically within one week of COVID-19 vaccination. Most of the people who got care felt better after receiving medicine and resting.

Symptoms to watch for include:

  • Chest pain.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Feelings of having a fast-beating, fluttering or pounding heart.

If you or your child has any of these symptoms within a week of getting a COVID-19 vaccine, seek medical care.

Things to know before a COVID-19 vaccine

Are covid-19 vaccines free.

In the U.S., COVID-19 vaccines may be offered at no cost through insurance coverage. For people whose vaccines aren't covered or for those who don't have health insurance, options are available. Anyone younger than 18 years old can get no-cost vaccines through the Vaccines for Children program. Adults can get no-cost COVID-19 vaccines through the temporary Bridges to Access program, which is scheduled to end in December 2024.

Can I get a COVID-19 vaccine if I have an existing health condition?

Yes, COVID-19 vaccines are safe for people who have existing health conditions, including conditions that have a higher risk of getting serious illness with COVID-19 .

Your healthcare team may suggest you get added doses of a COVID-19 vaccine if you have a moderately or severely weakened immune system. Talk to your healthcare team if you have any questions about when to get a COVID-19 vaccine.

Is it OK to take an over-the-counter pain medicine before or after getting a COVID-19 vaccine?

Don't take medicine before getting a COVID-19 vaccine to prevent possible discomfort. It's not clear how these medicines might impact the effectiveness of the vaccines. However, it's OK to take this kind of medicine after getting a COVID-19 vaccine, as long as you have no other medical reason that would prevent you from taking it.

Allergic reactions and COVID-19 vaccines

What are the signs of an allergic reaction to a covid-19 vaccine.

You might be having an immediate allergic reaction to a COVID-19 vaccine if you experience these symptoms within four hours of getting vaccinated:

  • Swelling of the lips, eyes or tongue.

If you have any signs of an allergic reaction, get help right away. Tell your healthcare professional about your reaction, even if it went away on its own or you didn't get emergency care. This reaction might mean you are allergic to the vaccine. You might not be able to get a second dose of the same vaccine. However, you might be able to get a different vaccine for your second dose.

Can I get a COVID-19 vaccine if I have a history of allergic reactions?

If you have a history of severe allergic reactions not related to vaccines or injectable medicines, you may still get a COVID-19 vaccine. You're typically monitored for 30 minutes after getting the vaccine.

If you've had an immediate allergic reaction to other vaccines or injectable medicines, ask your healthcare professional about getting a COVID-19 vaccine. If you've ever had an immediate or severe allergic reaction to any ingredient in a COVID-19 vaccine, the CDC recommends not getting that specific vaccine.

If you have an immediate or severe allergic reaction after getting the first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, don't get the second dose. But you might be able to get a different vaccine for your second dose.

Pregnancy, breastfeeding and fertility with COVID-19 vaccines

Can pregnant or breastfeeding women get the covid-19 vaccine.

If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, the CDC recommends that you get a COVID-19 vaccine. Getting a COVID-19 vaccine can protect you from severe illness due to COVID-19 . Vaccination also can help pregnant women build antibodies that might protect their babies.

COVID-19 vaccines don't cause infection with the virus that causes COVID-19 , including in pregnant women or their babies. None of the COVID-19 vaccines contains the live virus that causes COVID-19 .

Children and COVID-19 vaccines

If children don't often experience severe illness with covid-19, why do they need a covid-19 vaccine.

While rare, some children can become seriously ill with COVID-19 after getting the virus that causes COVID-19 .

A COVID-19 vaccine might prevent your child from getting the virus that causes COVID-19 . It also may prevent your child from becoming seriously ill or having to stay in the hospital due to the COVID-19 virus.

After a COVID-19 vaccine

Can i stop taking safety precautions after getting a covid-19 vaccine.

You are considered up to date with your vaccines if you have gotten all recommended COVID-19 vaccine shots when you become eligible.

After getting vaccinated, you can more safely return to doing activities that you might not have been able to do because of high numbers of people with COVID-19 in your area. However, if you're in an area with a high number of people with COVID-19 in the hospital, the CDC recommends wearing a well-fitted mask indoors in public, whether or not you're vaccinated.

If you have a weakened immune system or have a higher risk of serious illness, wear a mask that provides you with the most protection possible when you're in an area with a high number of people with COVID-19 in the hospital. Check with your healthcare professional to see if you should wear a mask at other times.

The CDC recommends that you wear a mask on planes, buses, trains and other public transportation traveling to, within or out of the U.S., as well as in places such as airports and train stations.

If you've gotten all recommended vaccine doses and you've had close contact with someone who has the COVID-19 virus, get tested at least five days after the contact happens.

Can I still get COVID-19 after I'm vaccinated?

COVID-19 vaccination will protect most people from getting sick with COVID-19 . But some people who are up to date with their vaccines may still get COVID-19 . These are called vaccine breakthrough infections.

People with vaccine breakthrough infections can spread COVID-19 to others. However, people who are up to date with their vaccines but who have a breakthrough infection are less likely to have serious illness with COVID-19 than those who are not vaccinated. Even when people who are vaccinated develop symptoms, they tend to be less severe than those experienced by unvaccinated people.

Are the new COVID-19 vaccines safe?

Andrew Badley, M.D., COVID-19 Research Task Force Chair, Mayo Clinic: The safety of these vaccines has been studied extensively. They've been tested now in about 75,000 patients in total, and the incidence of adverse effects is very, very low.

These vaccines were fast-tracked, but the parts that were fast-tracked were the paperwork; so the administrative approvals, the time to get the funding — those were all fast-tracked. Because these vaccines have such great interest, the time it took to enroll patients was very, very fast. The follow up was as thorough as it is for any vaccine, and we now have months of data on patients who received the vaccine or placebo, and we've compared the incidence of side effects between patients who received the vaccine and placebo, and that incidence of side effects, other than injection site reaction, is no different.

The side effects to the vaccines are very mild. Some of them are quite common. Those include injection site reactions, fevers, chills, and aches and pains. In a very, very small subset of patients — those patients who've had prior allergic reactions — some patients can experience allergic reaction to the vaccine. Right now we believe that number is exceedingly low.

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  • Pregnant and recently pregnant people. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/pregnant-people.html. Accessed Feb. 28, 2022.
  • Halasa NB, et al. Effectiveness of maternal vaccination with mRNA COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy against COVID-19-associated hospitalization in infants aged < 6 months — 17 states, July 2021-January 2022. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2022; doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7107e3.
  • Use and care of masks. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/about-face-coverings.html. Accessed Feb. 28, 2022.
  • Statement on Omicron sublineage BA.2. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news/item/22-02-2022-statement-on-omicron-sublineage-ba.2. Accessed March 25, 2022.
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  • Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: FDA authorizes second booster dose of two COVID-19 vaccines for older and immunocompromised individuals. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-authorizes-second-booster-dose-two-covid-19-vaccines-older-and. Accessed March 30, 2022.
  • Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: FDA limits use of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine to certain individuals. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-limits-use-janssen-covid-19-vaccine-certain-individuals. Accessed May 9, 2022.
  • Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: FDA expands eligibility for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine booster dose to children 5 through 11 years. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-expands-eligibility-pfizer-biontech-covid-19-vaccine-booster-dose. Accessed May 18, 2022.
  • COVID-19 vaccine boosters. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/booster-shot.html. Accessed May 23, 2022.
  • Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: FDA authorizes Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines for children down to 6 months of age. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-authorizes-moderna-and-pfizer-biontech-covid-19-vaccines-children. Accessed June 21, 2022.
  • Fact sheet for healthcare providers administering vaccine. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/comirnaty-and-pfizer-biontech-covid-19-vaccine. Accessed June 20, 2022.
  • Masking during travel. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/masks. Accessed Oct. 6, 2023.
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  • Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: FDA authorizes emergency use of Novavax COVID-19 vaccine, adjuvanted. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-authorizes-emergency-use-novavax-covid-19-vaccine-adjuvanted. Accessed July 15, 2022.
  • Novavax COVID-19, adjuvanted vaccine: Overview and safety. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/novavax.html. Accessed July 20, 2022.
  • Understanding protein subunit COVID-19 vaccines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/proteinsubunit.html. Accessed July 20, 2022.
  • Lee KMN, et al. Investigating trends in those who experience menstrual bleeding changes after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Science Advances. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abm720.
  • Reinfections and COVID-19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/your-health/reinfection.html. Accessed July 21, 2022.
  • Novavax COVID-19 vaccine, adjuvanted. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/novavax-covid-19-vaccine-adjuvanted. Accessed Oct. 5, 2023.
  • Variants and genomic surveillance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#variant-proportions. Accessed Aug. 23, 2022.
  • COVID-19 bivalent vaccine boosters. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/covid-19-bivalent-vaccine-boosters. Accessed Sept. 9, 2022.
  • Pediatric data. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#pediatric-data. Accessed March 21, 2023.
  • Benefits of getting a COVID-19 vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/vaccine-benefits.html. Accessed Oct. 22, 2023.
  • Plumb ID, et al. Effectiveness of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalization among adults with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2022; doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7115e2.
  • Vaccine effectiveness studies. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/effectiveness/how-they-work.html. Accessed Oct. 22, 2023.
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  • Link-Gelles, et al. Estimates of bivalent mRNA vaccine durability in preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalization and critical illness among adults with and without immunocompromising conditions — VISION network, September 2022-April 2023. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2023; doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7221a3.
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Surveillance surveys give clearer picture of COVID’s spread

By christina frank college of veterinary medicine.

Door-to-door surveillance surveys, which collect information from households or individuals in a specific geographical area, can often provide more precise estimates of how many people are infected with COVID-19 or have immunity to COVID-19 at any given point in time than relying on self-reporting and self-testing, a Cornell-led research group has found.

Dr. Casey Cazer , DVM ’16, Ph.D. ’20, an assistant professor in the Department of Clinical Sciences in the College of Veterinary Medicine, was lead author of the study, which published Jan. 29 in AJPM Focus . Cazer’s lab partnered with the Tompkins County, New York, public health department and Cayuga Health System.

Early in the pandemic, the prevalence of COVID-19 cases was determined by how many people were testing positive every day, using PCR tests. While the tests themselves are considered highly accurate, there were limitations to this method: Not everybody had the same access to testing, and those with asymptomatic infections were unlikely to seek out a test.

In February, April and October of 2022, the research team surveyed three municipalities in Tompkins County, using a two-stage cluster sampling model developed by researchers at Oregon State University. While surveillance studies are often considered the gold standard for collecting reliable data, they can be labor- and resource-intensive.

Using census blocks, the teams randomly chose different areas to sample, and surveyed one municipality at a time. Cazer said student volunteers would knock on approximately every 10th door and ask people if they wanted to participate in the study and give a sample.

Participants provided self-administered nasal swabs, which were tested for the virus as well as for antibodies. They also provided demographic information, symptom history and vaccination status, and answered questions on COVID-19 prevention behaviors and attitudes. In all, 233 individuals were sampled.

Cazer said the results showed a high level of asymptomatic infections.

“We found that some people had antibodies from a previous infection, but they did not report ever having a positive COVID test,” Cazer said. “It’s not surprising, but it confirms that there was a large amount of asymptomatic spread.”

The researchers emphasized the importance of leveraging existing relationships with institutions, thoroughly and consistently training volunteers, and creating new partnerships to make this method more efficient and sustainable.

“Some of the things that contributed to our success were the fact that we had really strong partnerships with Tompkins County [Whole Health] and Cayuga Health System,” said Cazer, who’s also an assistant professor in the Department of Public and Ecosystem Health and associate hospital director of the Small Animal Community Practice Service in the College of Veterinary Medicine.

“Because of those partnerships,” Cazer said, “we were able to use existing infrastructure and tools. So, we were able to run our COVID tests through the Cornell COVID-19 Testing Lab, which was a partnership with Cayuga Health System, and we were able to use existing technology systems from the Cayuga Health System to de-identify our samples and enable us to collect anonymous information.”

The researchers built off the work by the Oregon State teams, combining that with Cornell’s training for handling infectious samples. “Putting together a combination of borrowed and new training helped our team members be successful,” Cazer said.

The team hopes that the surveillance surveys provided timely and reliable evidence to inform local public health officials’ decision-making efforts in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. They encourage other universities or health departments that might want to do this kind of work to increase their odds of success by leveraging existing partnerships and tools.

Cazer’s team is currently collaborating with members of the School of Operations Research and Information Engineering, in Cornell Engineering, to understand how uncertainty impacts epidemiologic models of pandemics.

“There were a lot of different models and forecasts available of what was going to happen with COVID-19,” Cazer said. “Because there were limited amounts of information available, sometimes those models were not very accurate. We’re interested in trying to understand how that sort of uncertainty about what’s happening in real time impacts our ability to forecast those diseases and will help us to develop better forecasts for the next pandemic.”

Christina Frank is a freelance writer for the College of Veterinary Medicine.

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write a report on covid 19 in your locality

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Living with Coronavirus (COVID-19): a brief report

Affiliation.

  • 1 DOW Research Institute of Biotechnology and Biomedical Sciences, DOW College of Biotechnology, DOW University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. [email protected].
  • PMID: 33155254
  • DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202010_23455

The world will never be the same after the current COVID-19 pandemic. We may have to live with the coronavirus for a long time. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in a major burden on the global health system and economy. This report describes the current COVID-19 landscape and its socioeconomic implications. Despite the concerns for second waves of infection, gradual lifting of lockdown restrictions has occurred worldwide to relieve economic pressures and likely contributes towards possibly surging of outbreak although region wise variation exists due to several other biological factors, such as testing capacity and basic healthcare facilities among susceptible population within that region. Different prediction models have been put forth to forecast the spread of the current outbreak. However, it is challenging to perceive the precise changes happening in the real world as every time dynamics differ same as other epidemics cannot possibly be exactly superimposed to COVID-19. Currently, to decrypt the conundrum for effective antiviral drug against SARS-CoV-2 is in full swing. Due to high rate of mortality and it expeditiously spread is it decisive to understand the biological properties, clinical characteristics, epidemiology, evolution, pathogenesis for vaccine development and pathogenicity studies against the viral curb. Instant diagnostic and adequate therapeutics serve as a major intervention for the management of pandemic containment. Our study aims to analyze the impact of current measures and to suggest appropriate administrative strategic planning rather than to make somewhat authentic prediction in relation to the current scenario. Our predictive analysis study should be helpful against prevention, cure and control of the current outbreak of COVID-19 till the availability of cure or vaccine.

  • Betacoronavirus / pathogenicity
  • Coronavirus Infections / economics
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Drug Development
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Global Health
  • Pandemics / economics*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / economics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology*

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Coronavirus search: How is Covid-19 spreading in your locality?

Buncrana’s covid-19 incidence rate running at almost four times national average.

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

Buncrana in Co Donegal continues to have the highest 14-day incidence rate of Covid-19 in the State, running at almost four times the national average. Image: Google Streetview.

Buncrana in Co Donegal continues to have the highest 14-day incidence rate of Covid-19 in the State, running at almost four times the national average.

The latest data from the Health Protection Surveillance Centre (HPSC) for the two weeks from October 27th to November 9th examines the number of people infected per 100,000 of population by area, giving a better understanding of the rate of transmission than straight case numbers.

Buncrana recorded a rate of 536.5 cases per 100,000, down from almost 595 on November 2nd. The second highest rate was also in Co Donegal, in Letterkenny, which had a rate of 409.5 cases per 100,000.

The national rate has been decreasing gradually since the move to tighter restrictions and stood at 135 as of Thursday, down from a peak of 310.

Covid-19: Nphet advises against travel from abroad as 395 cases and one death recorded

Covid-19: Nphet advises against travel from abroad as 395 cases and one death recorded

Crackdown on outdoor drinking in Blackrock after street furniture attracts crowds

Crackdown on outdoor drinking in Blackrock after street furniture attracts crowds

Irish people abroad should not book flights home for Christmas yet, Varadkar says

Irish people abroad should not book flights home for Christmas yet, Varadkar says

Covid-19: Outbreaks in three hospitals severely curtail services

Covid-19: Outbreaks in three hospitals severely curtail services

Speaking on Thursday, chief medical officer Dr Tony Holohan highlighted Donegal as he said not every part of the State has experienced the same reduction in cases since the latest lockdown began.

Four electoral areas - Lismore in Co Waterford, Ballinamore and Manorhamilton in Co Leitrim and Corca Dhuibhne in Co Kerry - each recorded fewer than five cases of Covid-19, resulting in a 14-day incidence rate of 0.

In Dublin, the local electoral areas with the highest incidence rates were Tallaght South (310.2), Swords (288.1) and Ballymun-Finglas (272.2).

On the lower end of the scale in the capital were Killiney-Shankill (47.3), Blackrock (68.2) and Dundrum with (69.4).

Electoral areas that recorded some of the lowest 14-day incidence rates included Rosslare in Co Wexford (32.5), Carrickmacross-Castleblayney in Co Monaghan (32.7) and Baltinglass in Co Wicklow (34.4).

Meanwhile, other areas with high rates included Listowel in Co Kerry (404.5), Newcastle West in Co Limerick (331.9) and Cardonagh in Co Donegal (312.4).

The data is recorded according to local electoral areas of which there are 31 in Dublin and a total of 166 nationally.

By county, Donegal recorded the highest 14-day incidence between October 29th and November 11th at 281 per 100,000. This was followed by Limerick with 197.5, Roscommon at 172 and Westmeath at 167.8.

The counties with the lowest rates were Wexford with 49.4, Leitrim at 53.1, Wicklow at 72.3 and Kildare, which had an incidence rate of 93.9.

Search the table with this story to see how your area is coping with Covid-19. If you are reading this on The Irish Times app and can't see the searchable table, go here .

Shauna Bowers

Shauna Bowers

Shauna Bowers is a reporter for The Irish Times

Covid-19: Mink outbreaks could make vaccines ineffective, ECDC warns

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How to Conduct a Rapid Community Assessment

A Guide to Understanding Your Community’s Needs Regarding COVID-19 Vaccines

People walking with city background

  • English [87 pages] Updated Nov 2021
  • Spanish [93 pages] Updated Mar 2022

Addendum: Considerations for conducting rapid community assessment in tribal communities

  • Developed in partnership with CDC’s Tribal Support Section
  • English [7 pages] Nov 2021
  • Spanish [7 pages] April 2022

Addendum: Considerations for conducting rapid community assessment in adolescent populations and digital contexts

  • English [6 pages] Nov 2021
  • Spanish [6 pages] April 2022

Front page of the RCA Addendum for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Communities

  • Developed in partnership with the Oregon Health Authority, the National Center for Farmworker Health, CDC’s Global Migration Task Force, and CDC’s OR-7 and Yuma County Farmworker PopCAB Deployment Teams
  • English [11 pages] Feb 2022
  • Spanish [11 pages] April 2022

Front page of the RCA Addendum with Refugee, Immigrant, and Migrant Communities

  • Developed in partnership with CDC’s Division of Global Migration and Quarantine
  • English [12 pages] Oct 2022
  • Spanish [13 pages] Oct 2022

COVID-19 Vaccine Confidence Rapid Community Assessment Bootcamp

Sample Rapid Community Assessment

Preparatory Phase:

Prior to starting a rapid community assessment, get support from the leadership of your health department, coalition, or organization for conducting the assessment and creating a plan for action. Early awareness and support from leadership makes it more likely findings will be put to good use in planning and guiding vaccination efforts.

Week 1: Planning and Buy-In

  • Identify main objectives and your community(ies) of focus.
  • Identify and form assessment team.
  • Review existing data.

Week 2: Implementation and Analysis

  • Use decision tool to identify data collection methods.
  • Conduct data collection.
  • Synthesize key findings across different tools and identify interventions for prioritization.

Week 3: Report Findings and Plan for Action

  • Write report (narrative, one-page summary, slide presentation).
  • Share/report out assessment results with the assessment team and wider community (department of health officials, healthcare providers, school officials, and other partners).
  • Prioritize solutions and develop implementation plans.
  • Evaluate your efforts and plan for future community engagement.

image of 3 pages from the Rapid Community Assessment Tool

Download, edit, or print Word versions of the tools:

  • COVID-19 Vaccine Rollout Learning Template
  • Implementation Guide for Community Interviews and Listening Sessions
  • Observation
  • Intercept Interviews
  • Social Listening and Monitoring Tools
  • Insights Synthesis Tool

Download ZIP file in:

  • English [1 MB, ZIP]
  • Spanish [1 MB, ZIP]

Download and use the RCA Findings PowerPoint Presentation Template:

  • Building Confidence in COVID-19 Vaccines
  • What is Vaccine Confidence?
  • COVID-19 Vaccine Confidence Data
  • 12 COVID-19 Strategies for Your Community
  • Community Engagement Playbook (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) – Guidance on what programs/partners could consider as they develop a plan for engaging communities, to include four phases and nine key activities of community engagement.

Exit Notification / Disclaimer Policy

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.
  • Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
  • You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link.
  • CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website.

write a report on covid 19 in your locality

Create a form in Word that users can complete or print

In Word, you can create a form that others can fill out and save or print.  To do this, you will start with baseline content in a document, potentially via a form template.  Then you can add content controls for elements such as check boxes, text boxes, date pickers, and drop-down lists. Optionally, these content controls can be linked to database information.  Following are the recommended action steps in sequence.  

Show the Developer tab

In Word, be sure you have the Developer tab displayed in the ribbon.  (See how here:  Show the developer tab .)

Open a template or a blank document on which to base the form

You can start with a template or just start from scratch with a blank document.

Start with a form template

Go to File > New .

In the  Search for online templates  field, type  Forms or the kind of form you want. Then press Enter .

In the displayed results, right-click any item, then select  Create. 

Start with a blank document 

Select Blank document .

Add content to the form

Go to the  Developer  tab Controls section where you can choose controls to add to your document or form. Hover over any icon therein to see what control type it represents. The various control types are described below. You can set properties on a control once it has been inserted.

To delete a content control, right-click it, then select Remove content control  in the pop-up menu. 

Note:  You can print a form that was created via content controls. However, the boxes around the content controls will not print.

Insert a text control

The rich text content control enables users to format text (e.g., bold, italic) and type multiple paragraphs. To limit these capabilities, use the plain text content control . 

Click or tap where you want to insert the control.

Rich text control button

To learn about setting specific properties on these controls, see Set or change properties for content controls .

Insert a picture control

A picture control is most often used for templates, but you can also add a picture control to a form.

Picture control button

Insert a building block control

Use a building block control  when you want users to choose a specific block of text. These are helpful when you need to add different boilerplate text depending on the document's specific purpose. You can create rich text content controls for each version of the boilerplate text, and then use a building block control as the container for the rich text content controls.

building block gallery control

Select Developer and content controls for the building block.

Developer tab showing content controls

Insert a combo box or a drop-down list

In a combo box, users can select from a list of choices that you provide or they can type in their own information. In a drop-down list, users can only select from the list of choices.

combo box button

Select the content control, and then select Properties .

To create a list of choices, select Add under Drop-Down List Properties .

Type a choice in Display Name , such as Yes , No , or Maybe .

Repeat this step until all of the choices are in the drop-down list.

Fill in any other properties that you want.

Note:  If you select the Contents cannot be edited check box, users won’t be able to click a choice.

Insert a date picker

Click or tap where you want to insert the date picker control.

Date picker button

Insert a check box

Click or tap where you want to insert the check box control.

Check box button

Use the legacy form controls

Legacy form controls are for compatibility with older versions of Word and consist of legacy form and Active X controls.

Click or tap where you want to insert a legacy control.

Legacy control button

Select the Legacy Form control or Active X Control that you want to include.

Set or change properties for content controls

Each content control has properties that you can set or change. For example, the Date Picker control offers options for the format you want to use to display the date.

Select the content control that you want to change.

Go to Developer > Properties .

Controls Properties  button

Change the properties that you want.

Add protection to a form

If you want to limit how much others can edit or format a form, use the Restrict Editing command:

Open the form that you want to lock or protect.

Select Developer > Restrict Editing .

Restrict editing button

After selecting restrictions, select Yes, Start Enforcing Protection .

Restrict editing panel

Advanced Tip:

If you want to protect only parts of the document, separate the document into sections and only protect the sections you want.

To do this, choose Select Sections in the Restrict Editing panel. For more info on sections, see Insert a section break .

Sections selector on Resrict sections panel

If the developer tab isn't displayed in the ribbon, see Show the Developer tab .

Open a template or use a blank document

To create a form in Word that others can fill out, start with a template or document and add content controls. Content controls include things like check boxes, text boxes, and drop-down lists. If you’re familiar with databases, these content controls can even be linked to data.

Go to File > New from Template .

New from template option

In Search, type form .

Double-click the template you want to use.

Select File > Save As , and pick a location to save the form.

In Save As , type a file name and then select Save .

Start with a blank document

Go to File > New Document .

New document option

Go to File > Save As .

Go to Developer , and then choose the controls that you want to add to the document or form. To remove a content control, select the control and press Delete. You can set Options on controls once inserted. From Options, you can add entry and exit macros to run when users interact with the controls, as well as list items for combo boxes, .

Adding content controls to your form

In the document, click or tap where you want to add a content control.

On Developer , select Text Box , Check Box , or Combo Box .

Developer tab with content controls

To set specific properties for the control, select Options , and set .

Repeat steps 1 through 3 for each control that you want to add.

Set options

Options let you set common settings, as well as control specific settings. Select a control and then select Options to set up or make changes.

Set common properties.

Select Macro to Run on lets you choose a recorded or custom macro to run on Entry or Exit from the field.

Bookmark Set a unique name or bookmark for each control.

Calculate on exit This forces Word to run or refresh any calculations, such as total price when the user exits the field.

Add Help Text Give hints or instructions for each field.

OK Saves settings and exits the panel.

Cancel Forgets changes and exits the panel.

Set specific properties for a Text box

Type Select form Regular text, Number, Date, Current Date, Current Time, or Calculation.

Default text sets optional instructional text that's displayed in the text box before the user types in the field. Set Text box enabled to allow the user to enter text into the field.

Maximum length sets the length of text that a user can enter. The default is Unlimited .

Text format can set whether text automatically formats to Uppercase , Lowercase , First capital, or Title case .

Text box enabled Lets the user enter text into a field. If there is default text, user text replaces it.

Set specific properties for a Check box .

Default Value Choose between Not checked or checked as default.

Checkbox size Set a size Exactly or Auto to change size as needed.

Check box enabled Lets the user check or clear the text box.

Set specific properties for a Combo box

Drop-down item Type in strings for the list box items. Press + or Enter to add an item to the list.

Items in drop-down list Shows your current list. Select an item and use the up or down arrows to change the order, Press - to remove a selected item.

Drop-down enabled Lets the user open the combo box and make selections.

Protect the form

Go to Developer > Protect Form .

Protect form button on the Developer tab

Note:  To unprotect the form and continue editing, select Protect Form again.

Save and close the form.

Test the form (optional)

If you want, you can test the form before you distribute it.

Protect the form.

Reopen the form, fill it out as the user would, and then save a copy.

Creating fillable forms isn’t available in Word for the web.

You can create the form with the desktop version of Word with the instructions in Create a fillable form .

When you save the document and reopen it in Word for the web, you’ll see the changes you made.

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  5. PDF COVID-19 After Action Report Resources and Examples

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  8. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

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  27. Create a form in Word that users can complete or print

    Show the Developer tab. If the developer tab isn't displayed in the ribbon, see Show the Developer tab.. Open a template or use a blank document. To create a form in Word that others can fill out, start with a template or document and add content controls.