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Related Papers

The Architecture of Music - Design by Analogy

Marko Petreski

Music has the potential to evoke some of our deepest emotions and drastically alter our moods simply through specific combinations of notes. Architecture too, should have this potential. This thesis aims at investigating the secret of emotion in music, as it is an attempt to draw an analogy that may help to create a deeper architectural experience. A great musical composition is like a dream. When it is convincing in its narrative it draws you in, and makes you believe in its reality, stirring emotions within you for no apparent reason. When you look deeper into the nature of a musical composition, like musicologists have been doing, you discover testable, psychological devices are applied in order to create a greater emotional response from the listeners. By studying the work of Beethoven, I believe that I can translate these aural devices into visual and tactile ones, in the form of a housing development in Auckland city. Housing developments suffer from problems of monotony, due to their repetitive and modular nature. This project seeks to provide an alternative to these monotonous schemes by using a piece of music as a design brief. Highly architectural pieces of music are already perfectly balanced in their blend between variation and repetition, and are therefore great for regulating order. I have chosen my own piece of music, the Pathetique sonata by Beethoven, as inspiration because of its complex architecture, and because there are many professional analyses of it from which to study. My goal in this thesis is to reveal the wealth of architecural ideas hidden within highly structured pieces of music.

research paper on music and architecture

sneha trivedi

Alessandra Capanna

This paper is one of a set of lessons prepared for the course of “Theory of Architecture” (Faculty of Architecture — “La Sapienza” University of Rome). The didactic aim was to present — to students attending the first year of courses — some methods for the beginning stages of design and their applicability to any kind creative work. The brief multimedia hypertext quoted at the end of this paper was carried out in collaboration with the “LaMA” (Laboratorio Multimediale di Architettura) as a test for new educational tools applied to first our “e-learning” experiences.

In this portfolio of compositions, I have explored the concept of musical ambiguity. I perceive this kind of ambiguity as an interesting and purposeful instability, created by employing a variety of techniques to arrange and manipulate complex compositional materials. Interrupting the narrative flow with unexpected, disturbing fragments should increase the expressive tension of the musical structure and narrative, thereby obliterating ‘habitual’ hierarchies of perception and eradicating a false sense of stability in the listener. My techniques include the simultaneous juxtaposition of several aural ‘viewpoints’, such as dense versus lucid textures, as well as the fragmentation and repositioning of chosen elements. In the analyses of my compositions I have made use of some ideas and terms from the visual arts, architecture and philosophy to clarify my arguments. Every musical element from tonality, texture and rhythm to structure and narrative is questioned and reinterpreted by means of fragmentation and juxtaposition with the aim of creating layers of textures and timbres. Prior to this treatment, a composition is generally begun with a musical idea, derived from my mental ‘sound library’, which already alludes to timbre, instrumentation, atmosphere, modality and provides motivic impetus. Furthermore, a lively collaboration with musicians plays an important role during the compositional process and has enabled me to find my own voice through the shaping of the experimental materials into the two orchestral works, a few ensemble pieces and solo works.

Ken-Albert Orwa

Architectural design in urban Africa has long been defined from an outsider's point of view. It's high time that Africans begun to craft their own identity, even in their built environment. African urban music is a metaphor of both local expression and global appreciation. Music and architecture have a resonance in the design elements and principles that are used in their composition. Therefore, this dissertation demonstrates the possibility of using African urban music as a way of inspiring and basing the architectural landscape of urban Africa.

Marwa Morsi

Different art branches meet in many fields. Words & sentences of art are similar as regards harmonic elements, unity & rhythm. We focus in this study on those fields which make the architecture meets the music arts, and how each art is affecting the others? There has been a tremendous development in architectural concepts. In the past, we had obtained a complete symphony through the architectural works. Presently, we invent flexible, dynamic architectural models by integrating music wave frequencies using computer simulation programs or by de-constructing forms into free separate pixels. Step 1, Explaining the mutual relation between music & its philosophical effect on the architectural ideas. Step 2, Analyzing created architectural products which are designed by the musical harmony inside the computer simulation program. Step 3 Finding if these new design methods will meet the society‘s desire & acceptance in the future, or not?

Dancing Architecture: The parallel evolution of Bharatanatyam and South Indian Architecture

Tracey Eve Winton

In her book, "Indian Classical dance", Kapila Vatsyayan describes dance as the highest order of spiritual discipline, the enactment of which is symbolic of a ritual sacrifice of one's being to a transcendental order. The Natya-Shashtra, a treatise on drama and dance, reveals the status of the performing arts as equal to prayer and sacrificial rites in the pursuit of moksha, the release form cycles of rebirth. Both dance and dancer function as a vehicle for divine invocation and are mirrored in the architectural surroundings. To investigate this connection between dance and place, it is imperative to understand the mythical origins of architecture and temple dance. the Hindu philosophy of the cosmic man and its religious relationship with the Dravidian architecture of Tamil Nadu is the starting point of the discussion of a south Indian aesthetic. The Vastu-purusha mandala is a philosophical diagram that provides a foundation for Hindu aesthetics, linking physical distance, religious position and universal scale in both time and space. Used as an architectural diagram, it becomes a mediator between the human body and the cosmos. The temple, as a setting for dance performances, and constructed based on the mandala, shares this quality of immersing its participants into a multi-sensory spatial experience. However, while the link between architecture and dance culture was explicit up to the 18th century, it is less compelling in the context of modern south Indian architecture. With an increasingly unstable political landscape during the 20th century, architectural growth in south India during this period is almost stagnant. Unfortunately, this creates a break in the continuity and comparative evolution of dance and architecture, leading to the fragmentation and abstraction of dance in its modern form. South Indian dance has since transformed into a prominent cultural symbol and various incarnations of the dancer have become the isolated yet important link, between tradition and modernity. As an evolving living embodiment of contemporary culture and identity, her transformation from Devadasi, to an icon of nationalism, to a choreographer of 'high art' provides the foundation for the reintegration of architecture in the cultural fabric. The culmination of this research aims to reinstate the importance of architecture as a cultural nexus in order to restring a fragmented dance, community and cultural identity.

Jocelyn Wolfe , Bruce Wolfe

We engage with a place in a multitude of ways, through all of the senses. We are all an extension of place, but in modern societies the visual often typifies our sense of belonging to place at the expense of other senses. The architecture of our surroundings, for example, is predominantly described in visual terms. Art and architecture are often conflated. Art in architecture is often reduced to the visual, and the integration with or application to the built form. Yet architecture gives an acoustic quality of material and space that is inseparable from the experience. Commonly, we are more touched by what we hear than what we see. How, then, do we know our musical selves through architecture? This paper discusses one way of knowing through “The Piano Mill Project”, a hybrid building and musical instrument, designed and purpose-built to house sixteen reclaimed pianos – vestiges of colonialism, post-colonialism, artistic hierarchies, and new beginnings.

Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education

Essam M E T W A L L Y Mohamed

There is no doubt that there is a calculated relationship between architecture and music. If music is the translation of emotion, this emotion has been reflected in the architectural character and the arts of building and shaping its style. And the music of primitive tribes and barbaric peoples represented by the drums of homogeneous repetitions reflected on their buildings and primitive character or their huts identical and compact without compatibility or homogeneity. The rural music of each country, which is characterized by simple melodies and monotonous tones belonging to the living nature and sprouts from its land, we find a reflection of the buildings that are characterized by simplicity and calm and building materials derived from the surrounding nature. The Harmonized melodies and the continuous repetition of original tones and their background can easily be read or heard on the facades of the Islamic style buildings in the continuous surface repetition of contracts and decorations The change of the personality of Arab architecture from one country to another and the change of the form of contracts and domes, has found a similarity in the changing personality of contemporary music. Every modern development in architecture and its character is recorded by the music and its character. The more the cultures of the peoples are merged, the more modern the modern architecture, which occupies its place in the different countries, resonates with contemporary world music and converges with the civil affinity and culture of the peoples. "Architecture is music embodied in the place," says Hassan Fathi. "Music is an architecture embodied in time" Studying the relationship between interior architecture and music enables us to "enjoy" it by using our senses to "see what we listen to" and "hear what we see" achieve greater levels of experience. I think this is what the "normal" people do, and they use their senses to live life differently than they did before. Through practical experiments for students of Design 2, the music has been transformed into an interior design through the sensation, sensation and impression of the music in the same designer to translate these feelings into design forms and stereoscopic elements with materials, colors and reflections that express these feelings and the emotional state raised by this music.


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115 awesome architecture research topics: useful list of ideas.

architecture research topics

If you are reading this, it means you need to write an excellent architectural research paper and need some help choosing the topic. The good news is that our expert writers have just updated our list of 115 unique architecture research topics.

This means you can find some original ideas right here on this page. Of course, you can use any of our ideas for free – as long as you get an A+ on your next research paper.

Writing an Architecture Essay Quickly

If you are like most students, you probably don’t know how to write complex architecture research papers quickly. This can be a real problem, especially if you need to finish your essay quickly. After all, you probably have several other school projects to focus on – not to mention tests and exams. This is why we will give you more than just awesome architecture research paper topics. We will help you with a guide on how to write a great paper quickly:

  • First, go through our architectural research topics and pick the one you like the most.
  • Write a thesis statement. In a sentence, tell your readers what your paper aims to demonstrate.
  • Write an introduction for your essay. This is where you present your thesis statement and tell your audience a bit more about the subject.
  • Write three or more body paragraphs, each dealing with a single idea. Generally, you will start the paragraph with a clear statement and then use the rest of the paragraph to bring evidence in support of your statement.
  • Write a conclusion for your research paper. Most often, it’s enough to restate the thesis and summarize all your findings. Tell your audience how your findings support your thesis and wrap everything up with a call to action (this is optional).
  • Edit your work and delete parts that are redundant, don’t make sense or are simply unnecessary. Add more content to parts that need it.
  • Proofread your work at least twice. Who wants to lose some points over silly mistakes like typos or spelling errors?

Best Architectural Topics for Research

Now that you know what you need to do to write a paper quickly, you probably want to minimize the time you spend searching for architectural topics for research. This is where we can definitely help you. Take a look at our list of 115 awesome architecture paper topics and use as many of them as you like. All of them are 100% free!

Interesting Questions About Architecture

Here are some interesting questions about architecture that should fire up your creative engine:

  • What are the costs of an architect?
  • Is concrete obsolete in 2022?
  • How long does it take to design a unique skyscraper?
  • What are the worst architectural mistakes of the 1900s?
  • What does an architect really do?
  • How do you pick the right architect for a major project?
  • What is the worst thing about architecture in the UK?
  • Is architecture an artistic profession?
  • What are the expected advancements in architecture in 2022?
  • How long will we continue to use steel?
  • What are the best ways to design a skyscraper?
  • Is architecture a creative profession?
  • Why is planning a bridge so difficult?

Easy Research Topics in Architecture

If you don’t want to spend more than a few hours working on your architecture paper, we have a list of easy research topics in architecture right here:

  • A short history of architecture in the United States
  • Discuss urban planning in Eastern Europe
  • Talk about maritime technology
  • Ancient Greek architecture
  • Talk about metal fatigue in skyscrapers
  • Is it difficult being an architect?
  • Ancient Roman architecture
  • The importance of restoring heritage buildings
  • Talk about innovations in bridge design
  • Architecture in Asian countries
  • Planning a new urban park in your neighborhood
  • Discuss climate control in modern buildings
  • Architecture in African countries

Topics Related to Public Structures

Designing public structures is not an easy thing to do, but writing a paper about them shouldn’t be too difficult. Here are some nice topics related to public structures:

  • An in-depth look at the design of the Lincoln Memorial
  • Design the plan of a new bank in your neighborhood
  • Designing a new skyscraper in your city
  • An in-depth look at the design of the Empire State Building
  • Building the latest public service building in the city
  • A space research center in Colorado Springs
  • An in-depth look at the design of the White House
  • Research the design of the United States Capitol building
  • The Golden Gate Bridge: an innovative design

Top Ideas Related to Urban Planning

Interested in talking about urban planning? No problem, we can help. Take a look at our list of top ideas related to urban planning:

  • An in-depth look at bicycle transportation in New York City
  • Research the rational-comprehensive approach to urban planning
  • Housing peculiarities in Scotland
  • Discuss the importance of urban design in 2022
  • Discuss the Concentric Model Zone by Ernest Burgess
  • How can you become a successful urban planner?
  • The importance of landscape in modern urbanism
  • An in-depth look at housing affordability in the UK
  • Planning land use in large cities in North America
  • What is the role of an urban planner?
  • Transport problems in London
  • Discuss the Three Magnets theory by Ebenezer Howard

Architecture Thesis Topics

In case you’ve ran out of ideas for a topic, we have some of the best architecture thesis topics on the Internet. Check out these original ideas:

  • Talk about the latest trends in environmental tech
  • Discuss urban intensification challenges
  • Design a brand new shopping mall in your area
  • An efficient plan of the London transportation system
  • Latest trends in theatre architecture
  • Talk about lighting technology in Egyptian pyramids
  • Common problems when designing a skyscraper
  • Latest advancements in virtual planning

Complex Architectural Topics for Research

We know some students want to try something a bit more difficult to impress their professor. Here are some pretty complex architectural topics for research:

  • Compare urban housing with rural housing in the UK
  • The use of concrete in 2022
  • Modern building technologies
  • The latest building materials
  • Talk about resource use maximization
  • Discuss the impact of environmental technology on architecture
  • Talk about the peculiarities of Islamic architecture
  • Discuss planning a new school in a rural area

Great Architecture Thesis Ideas

If you are preparing to start working on your thesis, you will be thrilled to learn that we have a list of great architecture thesis ideas for you:

  • Talk about the theories behind resilient designs
  • Solving traffic congestions in New York City
  • Building materials of the future
  • Talk about sustainable rural development
  • What are the principles of lightweight architecture?
  • Materials used in ancient architecture
  • The importance of using domes in your designs
  • How can you make architecture an art?

Interesting Topics Related to Architecture

This is where our writers and editors selected the most interesting ideas. Check out our most interesting topics related to architecture:

  • Talk about the rehabilitation of an ancient structure
  • The design of Egyptian temples
  • What do you think architecture will look like in 100 years?
  • Indoor air quality and architecture
  • Historic French architecture peculiarities
  • How can you maximize usable space in your designs?
  • Talk about constructing in extreme weather conditions
  • How important are arches in 2022?

Interior Design Topics

If you want your research paper to be about something in interior design, our experts have compiled a list of unique interior design topics for you:

  • Is interior design a dying industry?
  • Talk about how people perceive colors
  • The latest decorating styles in the UK
  • The best color combinations in 2022
  • Latest trends in interior design
  • Differences in interior design in 3 different countries
  • Talk about the rise of statement ceilings
  • Curves instead of straight lines in 2022

Good Topics for High School Students

Our list wouldn’t be complete without a section of good topics for high school students. Check out these ideas and take your pick:

  • Discuss why arches are important
  • Is interior design a part of architecture?
  • How do domes influence modern designs?
  • Design a simple living space
  • Design a new stadium in your area
  • What is lightweight architecture?
  • Talk about Roman concrete

Awesome Ideas for College

Are you a college student looking for top notch topics for his next architecture research paper? Check out these great awesome ideas for college:

  • What is the most important building material today?
  • Discuss the creation of 3D architectural designs
  • Discuss about weather effects on buildings
  • Common problems designing a hospital
  • How did Covid-19 influence architecture?
  • Talk about the use of technology in architecture
  • The importance of virtual planning

Thesis Topics Related to Cultural Facilities

If you want to write your next paper on something related to culture, we have some of the best thesis topics related to cultural facilities:

  • Design a new library in your city
  • How important is the design of a cultural facility?
  • Designing multidisciplinary spaces in 2022
  • The concept of resonating with people
  • The importance of integrating nature into your designs
  • Making effective use of land in your designs
  • Designing a worship center worthy of an award

Controversial Architecture Topics

Of course, we encourage every student to write about controversial topics. In fact, we have some very interesting controversial architecture topics right here:

  • The design and building of the Sagrada Familia
  • The lack of a national building code in Nigeria
  • Discuss the problems involved with collaborative processes
  • Trust issues in the modern world of architecture
  • An in-depth look at the Scottish Parliament Building
  • Is a good architect a good designer?
  • Are building codes in the US flawed?

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Computer Science > Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

Title: imagebind: one embedding space to bind them all.

Abstract: We present ImageBind, an approach to learn a joint embedding across six different modalities - images, text, audio, depth, thermal, and IMU data. We show that all combinations of paired data are not necessary to train such a joint embedding, and only image-paired data is sufficient to bind the modalities together. ImageBind can leverage recent large scale vision-language models, and extends their zero-shot capabilities to new modalities just by using their natural pairing with images. It enables novel emergent applications 'out-of-the-box' including cross-modal retrieval, composing modalities with arithmetic, cross-modal detection and generation. The emergent capabilities improve with the strength of the image encoder and we set a new state-of-the-art on emergent zero-shot recognition tasks across modalities, outperforming specialist supervised models. Finally, we show strong few-shot recognition results outperforming prior work, and that ImageBind serves as a new way to evaluate vision models for visual and non-visual tasks.

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The Graham Foundation announces its 2023 individual grantees

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Innovative and Interdisciplinary

research paper on music and architecture

Last week the Graham Foundation announced its 2023 Grants to Individuals, awarding 64 grants to 92 individuals. The funded projects range from publications and research to exhibitions, films, podcasts, and other digital initiatives and public programs that embody the Chicago -based foundation’s mission to promote innovative and interdisciplinary ideas that contribute critical perspectives on architecture and design.

These new grantees join the ranks of over 67 years worth of projects that have been supported by the Graham Foundation, including over 5,000 projects by individuals and organizations with a collective $43 million in direct support. This year’s group was chosen from among 500 submissions, and hails from nearly every corner of  New York, Ethiopia, Lebanon, Argentina Paris, Portugal, Brazil, and even the foundation’s hometown of Chicago, among others.

Of the 64 funded projects, many include installations that opened last week at the 18th Venice Architecture Biennale . These projects were presented in the main exhibition, The Laboratory of the Future , curated by Graham Foundation grantee Lesley Lokko, and include: The Uhuru Catalogues by Thandi Loewenson, which has won a special mention ; TEXTURAL THRESHOLD HAIR SALON: Dreadlock by Felecia Davis; Black City Astrolabe by J. Yolande Daniels; and Index of Edges by Huda Tayob. In national pavilions, 2023 individual grantee projects include: La Casa Tappeto by Giovanni Bellotti, Alessandra Covini, and Adelita Husni-Bey in the Italian Pavilion curated by Fosbury Architecture; and Labor (Un)settlement and Migration Futures by N H D M: Nahyun Hwang and David Moon in the Korean Pavilion curated by artistic directors Soik Jung and Kyong Park.

Several of these recipients have won grants from the foundation in the past and have gone on to win numerous other achievements, such as Felecia Davis in 2021 for Hair Salon: Translating Black Hair Practices for Architecture Using Computational Methods , which was also recently presented at University of Houston ; recent Emerging Voices recipient N H D M in 2019 for Interim Urbanism: Youth, Dwelling, City ;  Ana Miljački in 2016 for Terms of Appropriation: Modern Architecture and Global Exchange and 2014 for co-curating the U.S. Pavilion at the Venice Architecture Biennale , and this year for her work on the architecture podcast I Would Prefer Not To. Others include AN writer and contributor Anjulie Rao and Anna Bokov in 2021 for her work on Vkhutemas and its related book Avant-Garde as Method . Her recently opened, controversial exhibition Vkhutemas: Laboratory of Modernism, 1920-1930 was supported by the 2021 grant.

All 64 of the Graham Foundation’s 2023 individual grantees and their respective projects are listed below. More information on each can be found here .


KJ Abudu | Lagos, Nigeria; London; and New York Traces of Ecstasy

Giovanni Bellotti, Alessandra Covini, and Adelita Husni-Bey | New York, and Rotterdam, the Netherlands La Casa Tappeto

Radhi Ben Hadid, Meriem Chabani, and John Edom | Paris Muqarnas—Sacred Grounds

Gabriel Cira, James Heard, and Julian Phillips | Boston Stull & Lee: Black Architecture Vision for an Infrastructural City

research paper on music and architecture

J. Yolande Daniels | Cambridge, MA Black City Astrolabe

Felecia Davis | State College, PA TEXTURAL THRESHOLD HAIR SALON: Dreadlock

Megan Echols and Dana McKinney | Miami and Washington, DC Black—Still

N H D M: Nahyun Hwang and David Eugin Moon | New York Migrating Futures

Chandra M. Laborde | San Francisco Transecological (Re)Imaginations in the Tenderloin

Thandi Loewenson | London, United Kingdom The Uhuru Catalogues

Andrea Molina Cuadro | New York Geo-Fantasies: A Space Race on Planet Earth

Marco Piscitelli | Oklahoma City Rust on a Razor Blade: Mickey Muennig in Big Sur, 1970–2000

Tivon Rice | Seattle A Pattern Language for Spatial Adjacencies

Huda Tayob | Manchester, United Kingdom Index of Edges

Film, Video, and New Media Projects

Paola Antonelli and Alice Rawsthorn | London and New York Design Emergency

research paper on music and architecture

Becky Beamer and Jori Erdman | Charlottesville, VA and Oslo, Norway Witness: Design of the Tougaloo Center for Racial Justice and Equity

Joseph Bedford | Blacksburg, VA Attention Audio Journal, Issues 8, 9, and 10

Kenny Cupers, Makau Kitata, and Chao Tayiana Maina | Basel, Switzerland and Nairobi, Kenya Kamirithu Theatre: An Architecture for Decolonization

Maria Gaspar | Chicago I Believe in the Things You Cannot See

Ana Miljački | Boston I Would Prefer Not To

Vaissnavi Shukl | Ahmedabad, India Architecture Off-Centre

Public Programs

Isabel Duarte, Maya Ober, and Nina Paim | Basel, Switzerland and Porto, Portugal Etceteras: feminist festival of design and publishing

Liz Gálvez and José Ibarra | Denver and New York Latinx Coalition Chats


Carla Aramouny and Sandra Frem | Beirut, Lebanon Shifting Grounds [the ground between form and practice in Beirut]

Anna Bokov | New York From Method to Style: “Elements of Spatial Composition” and Architectural Pedagogy after Vkhutemas

Kofi Boone and M. Elen Deming | Durham and Raleigh, NC Empty Pedestals: Narratives on History, Race and Public Design

Craig Buckley | New York The Street and the Screen: Architectures of Spectatorship in the Age of Cinem a

Íñigo Cornago Bonal, Vishwanath Kashikar, and Christoph Lueder | Ahmedabad, India and London How to Build with Time? Learning from Bimanagar, Ahmedabad, India

Alexander Eisenschmidt | Chicago Félix Candela from Mexico City to Chicago: Rise and Fall of Experimentation in Concrete

Makram el Kadi and Ziad Jamaleddine | Beirut, Lebanon and New York From the Mountain to the Sea: Architectural Excursions in the Lebanese Landscape and Beyond

Yun Fu | Cambridge, MA Thinking and Building on Shaky Ground

Arnika Fuhrmann | Ithaca, NY In the Mood for Texture: The Revival of Bangkok as a Chinese City

Anna Goodman | Portland, OR Citizen Architects: How Hands-on Building in Architectural Education Shaped a Nation

Elisavet Hasa | London Building Solidarity Architectures: Social Movements, Welfare Crisis and State Abandonment

Lydia Kallipoliti and Areti Markopoulou | Barcelona and New York EDIBLE; Or, The Architecture of Metabolism

John Keenen | New York Tony Smith Architecture Catalogue Raisonné

research paper on music and architecture

Gili Merin | Vienna Analogous Jerusalem

Faiza Moatasim | Los Angeles Master Plans and Encroachments: The Architecture of Informality in Islamaba d

Léa Namer | Paris Chacarita Moderna: The Brutalist Necropolis of Buenos Aires by the Architect Itala Fulvia Villa

Anjulie Rao | Chicago Weathered, Season 2

Judith Raum | Berlin Otti Berger. Weaving for Modernist Architecture

Manuel Shvartzberg Carrió | San Diego Inland Empire: Settler Colonialism, Modern Architecture, and the Rise of American Hegemony

Davide Spina | Zurich Roman Leviathan: Architecture and Capitalism in Postwar Italy

Oscar Tuazon | Los Angeles Los Angeles Water School

Stathis G. Yeros | Gainesville, FL Queering Urbanism: Architecture, Embodiment, and Queer Citizenship

Claire Zimmerman | Ann Arbor, MI Albert Kahn, Inc. and the Architecture of Capitalism, 1905–1961

research paper on music and architecture

Research Projects

Gouled Ahmed and Asmaa Jama | Bristol, United Kingdom and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Together we fled a realm

Toby Altman | Chicago Prairie School

Carmen Amengual | Los Angeles A Non-Coincidental Mirror

Tutin Aryanti | Bandung, Indonesia Women’s Prayer Space: The Politics of Sex Segregation

Minne Atairu | New York The Menstrual Isolation Room is a Spa!

Bruno Borgna, Mauricio Corbalán, and Pío Torroja | Buenos Aires, Argentina Giving Voice to the Río de La Plata Basin

Stephanie Choi | New York Twilight Requiem

Yasmina El Chami | Sheffield, United Kingdom Building “International Goodwill”: American Campuses in the “Near East,” 1919–1964

Design Earth: Rania Ghosn and El Hadi Jazairy | Cambridge, MA Elephant in the Room, and Other Fables

Curry J. Hackett | Boston Drylongso: Imaging the Black Landscape

Suzy Halajian and Noah Simblist | Los Angeles and Richmond, VA Cracks in the Edifice: Niemeyer’s Futuristic Fairground in Tripoli

Nusaibah Khan | Portland, OR Productive Landscapes in Srinagar—A Case of Floating Gardens and Hanji Settlements of Dal Lake

Sharon Leung | Los Angeles An Ode to Basement Workshop 1971–86

Paula Koeler Lira and Tatiana Pinto | Rio de Janeiro and Stockholm Entangled Ecologies

Camila Palomino and Sean Vegezzi | New York Civic Gaze

research paper on music and architecture

Deepa Ramaswamy | Houston Reclaimed Lands: The Ecological Legacies of Colonial Bombay’s Coasts

Alex Strada | New York House of D

Feifei Zhou | New York Between Land and Water—Architecture of Porosity

Click Here For The Latest Digital Issue

Gensler shares new renderings of Bally’s Chicago Casino

research paper on music and architecture

The Broadway Youth Center offers essential care to Chicago’s LGBTQ youth

research paper on music and architecture

Deem ’s first symposium gathered presenters with collaborative, community-oriented practices


This article is part of the research topic.

New Insights into Mechanisms of Epigenetic Modifiers in Plant Growth and Development, Volume II

Editorial: New Insights into Mechanisms of Epigenetic Modifiers in Plant Growth and Development, Volume II

The final, formatted version of the article will be published soon.

As we have learnt, chromatin modifications including histone modifications and DNA methylation play a key role in plant development (Ng et al.). However, accumulated evidence shows that other epigenetic regulations, e.g., chromatin architecture, besides chromatin biochemical modifications also function at a pivot point to regulate plant development (Zhang et al.). In this collection, 5 papers described multiple developmental facets mediated by different epigenetic mechanisms besides histone modifications. These manuscripts report experimental evidence or summarize recent advances on epigenetic regulations of some important developmental genes or of development-related mechanisms. This collection facilitates readers to learn the latest advance on epigenetic regulations on seed germination, flowering time control, miRNA biogenesis and stability, secondary meristem maintenance as well as histone deacetylase 9 mediated day-length dependent hypocotyl cell elongation. Flowering locus C(FLC)is a major determinant of flowering in Arabidopsis. While the repression of FLC expression by autonomous pathway genes includes histone modifications. The recent advances indicate that this process is much more complex. It has been shown that the precise control of FLC expression additionally involves chromatin architecture, RNA polymerase pausing and ncRNA mediated gene silencing. The review by Kyung et al. discusses how these novel mechanisms coupled with histone modifications may lead to the repression of FLC expression and provides the reader with a comprehensive review on autonomous pathway gene mediated FLC repression via epigenetic regulations. Since the discovery of miRNA in C. elegans, they have been tightly connected to organisms’ development. Although there are different biogenesis mechanisms between plants and other organisms, miRNAs have been confirmed to play a key role in plant development, e.g., miRNA156/172 regulating developmental timing. For instance, pre-miRNAs transcribed from MIR genes by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase-mediate MIR promoter accessibility and MIR gene transcription. In addition to this role, the epigenetic factors also regulate miRNA biogenesis and abundance. Recent evidence has shown that a key component Serrate (SE) of miRNA processing complex can directly interact with CHROMATIN REMODELLER 2 (CHR2), and unwind pre-miRNA structure, thus preventing miRNA biogenesis and accumulation. However, CHR2 also can function as a positive regulator of MIR gene transcription via its chromatin remodeling activity. The different, even opposite roles of CHR2 in miRNA biogenesis embody the complexity of epigenetic regulations. This and other detailed advances on miRNA biogenesis and stability can be found in Zhang et al. review article. Secondary growth mediated by secondary meristems is crucial for plant radial thickening and plant axes strengthening. Whereas vascular cambium leads to secondary xylem and phloem, cork cambium or phellogen produce the periderm, with an important role to protect plants from insects, diseases and the harmful effects of climate change. Secondary growth mediated by vascular cambium such as during xylogenesis, dormancy-activation periods of cambium, and secondary tissue regeneration after injury are under epigenetic regulations, involving histone modifications (H3K4me3), DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and miRNA mediated DNA methylation. During periderm formation, phellogen-mediated cell division, differentiation and regeneration are regulated by various epigenetic modifications, including increased DNA methylation followed by chromatin condensation, and H3K4me3 enrichment to activate genes involved in secondary cell wall deposition and programmed cell death. In addition, miRNAs targeting histone modifiers cause alterations in the histone modification landscapes, and also mediate periderm differentiation and formation. More in-detailed epigenetic effects on plant secondary growth can be found in Inácio et al. review paper. Histone modifications play a key role in regulating developmental genes, and RPD3-like histone deacetylases, e.g., HDA6, HDA9, HDA19 etc., can form conserved SIN3-type histone deacetylase complexes to regulate plant responses to stresses and developmental cues. Among them, HDA6 maintains heterochromatin status by preventing DNA demethylation at heterochromatin regions through deacetylating H3K18ac, a crucial mark for DNA demethylases (Wang et al.). Although HDA6, HDA9 and HDA19 are commonly involved in regulation of Arabidopsis flowering time, they have different molecular targets, e.g., HDA6 represses FLC expression, HDA9 targets AGL19, while HDA19 regulates photoperiod genes. In the collection, Lee et al. show that HDA9 repress GIGANTEA expression under short day conditions, thus stimulating hypocotyl cell elongation. Seed dormancy is not only an important developmental process, but also affects plant survival and adaptation to adverse habitats. Delay of germination 1 (DOG1) has been described controlling seed dormancy by converging with the ABA signaling pathway to tightly repress seed germination. Previous studies with different Arabidopsis ecotypes adapted to summer (Bur) and winter (Cvi) seasons found that histone modification H3K4me3 remains stable during dormancy, and as dormancy declines, H3K4me3 level decreases. During the release of dormancy, H3K27me3 repressive mark slowly accumulated along DOG1. In this collection, Han et al. show that HD2A and HD2B are recruited by HSI2 and HSL1 to down-regulate DOG1 expression and to release seed dormancy. These results show that various epigenetic modifications coordinate together to make a fine tune for seed dormancy and germination. CONCLUDING REMARKS In the collection, readers will find how histone modifications affect developmental gene expression and regulation, e.g., histone acetylation on DOG1 gene and HDA19 mediated repression of GIGANTEA, and also the latest epigenetic advances on periderm development as well as chromatin architecture effects on FLC expression and epigenetic interaction with miRNA biogenesis and stability. Given the fact that histone deacetylases interact with epigenetic machinery like e.g., chromatin remodeling complexes and numerous transcription factors involved in important regulatory processes, the further exploration of this field may lead to the deciphering of not yet recognized precise regulatory mechanisms controlling gene expression in the context of the response to changing environmental conditions. Thus, the articles presented in this collection provide qualified and valuable knowledge for the epigenetic community.

Keywords: epigenetic, histone modification, DNA methyaltion, RNA, Plant Growth

Received: 28 Apr 2023; Accepted: 19 May 2023.

Copyright: © 2023 Luo, Sarnowski, Libault, Ríos, Charron, Mantri and Zhang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Ming Luo, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Guangzhou, China Prof. Shoudong Zhang, School of Agriculture, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650504, Yunnan Province, China

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AI-powered marketing and sales reach new heights with generative AI

Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) continue to push the boundaries of what is possible in marketing and sales. And now, with the ongoing step-change evolution of generative AI (gen AI), we’re seeing the use of open-source platforms penetrating to the sales frontlines, along with rising investment by sales-tech players in gen AI innovations. Given the accelerating complexity and speed of doing business in a digital-first world, these technologies are becoming essential tools.

Inevitably, this will impact how you operate—and how you connect with and serve your customers. In fact, it’s probably already doing so. Forward-thinking C-suite leaders are considering how to adjust to this new landscape. Here, we outline the marketing and sales opportunities (and risks) in this dynamic field and suggest productive paths forward.

Our research suggests that a fifth of current sales-team functions could be automated.

How AI is reshaping marketing and sales

AI is poised to disrupt marketing and sales in every sector. This is the result of shifts in consumer sentiment alongside rapid technological change.

Omnichannel is table stakes

Across industries, engagement models are changing: today’s customers want everything, everywhere, and all the time. While they still desire an even mix of traditional, remote, and self-service channels (including face-to-face, inside sales, and e-commerce), we see continued growth in customer preference for online ordering and reordering.

Winning companies—those increasing their market share by at least 10 percent annually—tend to utilize advanced sales technology; build hybrid sales teams and capabilities; tailor strategies for third-party and company-owned marketplaces; achieve e-commerce excellence across the entire funnel; and deliver hyper-personalization (unique messages for individual decision makers based on their needs, profile, behaviors, and interactions—both past and predictive).

Step changes are occurring in digitization and automation

What is generative ai.

Many of us are already familiar with online AI chatbots and image generators, using them to create convincing pictures and text at astonishing speed. This is the great power of generative AI, or gen AI: it utilizes algorithms to generate new content—writing, images, or audio—from training data.

To do this, gen AI uses deep-learning models called foundation models (FMs). FMs are pre-trained on massive datasets and the algorithms they support are adaptable to a wide variety of downstream tasks, including content generation. Gen AI can be trained, for example, to predict the next word in a string of words and can generalize that ability to multiple text-generation tasks, such as writing articles, jokes, or code.

In contrast, “traditional” AI is trained on a single task with human supervision, using data specific to that task; it can be fine-tuned to reach high precision, but must be retrained for each new use case. Thus gen AI represents an enormous step change in power, sophistication, and utility—and a fundamental shift in our relationship to artificial intelligence.

AI technology is evolving at pace. It is becoming increasingly easy and less costly to implement, while offering ever-accelerating complexity and speed that far exceeds human capacity. Our research suggests that a fifth of current sales-team functions could be automated. In addition, new frontiers are opening with the rise of gen AI (see sidebar “What is generative AI?”). Furthermore, venture capital investment in AI has grown 13-fold over the last ten years. 1 Nestor Maslej et al., “The AI Index 2023 annual report,” AI Index Steering Committee, Institute for Human-Centered AI, Stanford University, April 2023. This has led to an explosion of “usable” data (data that can be used to formulate insights and suggest tangible actions) and accessible technology (such as increased computation power and open-source algorithms). Vast, and growing, amounts of data are now available for foundation-model training, and since 2012 there’s been a millionfold increase in computation capacity—doubling every three to four months. 2 Cliff Saran, “Stanford University finds that AI is outpacing Moore’s Law,” Computer Weekly, December 12, 2019; Risto Miikkulainen, “Creative AI through evolutionary computation: Principles and examples,” SN Computer Science, 2(3): 163, March 23, 2001.

Would you like to learn more about our Growth, Marketing & Sales Practice ?

What does gen ai mean for marketing and sales.

The rise of AI, and particularly gen AI, has potential for impact in three areas of marketing and sales: customer experience (CX), growth, and productivity.

For example, in CX, hyper-personalized content and offerings can be based on individual customer behavior, persona, and purchase history. Growth can be accelerated by leveraging AI to jumpstart top-line performance, giving sales teams the right analytics and customer insights to capture demand. Additionally, AI can boost sales effectiveness and performance by offloading and automating many mundane sales activities, freeing up capacity to spend more time with customers and prospective customers (while reducing cost to serve). In all these actions, personalization is key. AI coupled with company-specific data and context has enabled consumer insights at the most granular level, allowing B2C lever personalization through targeted marketing and sales offerings. Winning B2B companies go beyond account-based marketing and disproportionately use hyper-personalization in their outreach.

Bringing gen AI to life in the customer journey

There are many gen AI-specific use cases across the customer journey that can drive impact:

A gen AI sales use case: Dynamic audience targeting and segmentation

Gen AI can combine and analyze large amounts of data—such as demographic information, existing customer data, and market trends—to identify additional audience segments. Its algorithms then enable businesses to create personalized outreach content, easily and at scale.

Instead of spending time researching and creating audience segments, a marketer can leverage gen AI’s algorithms to identify segments with unique traits that may have been overlooked in existing customer data. Without knowing every detail about these segments, they can then ask a gen AI tool to draft automatically tailored content such as social media posts and landing pages. Once these have been refined and reviewed, the marketer and a sales leader can use gen AI to generate further content such as outreach templates for a matching sales campaign to reach prospects.

Embracing these techniques will require some openness to change. Organizations will require a comprehensive and aggregated dataset (such as an operational data lake that pulls in disparate sources) to train a gen AI model that can generate relevant audience segments and content. Once trained, the model can be operationalized within commercial systems to streamline workflows while being continuously refined by agile processes.

Lastly, the commercial organizational structure and operating model may need to be adjusted to ensure appropriate levels of risk oversight are in place and performance assessments align to the new ways of working.

This revolutionary approach is transforming the landscape of marketing and sales, driving greater effectiveness and customer engagement from the very start of the customer journey.

Winning tomorrow’s car buyers using artificial intelligence in marketing and sales

Winning tomorrow’s car buyers using artificial intelligence in marketing and sales

Commercial leaders are optimistic—and reaping benefits.

We asked a group of commercial leaders to provide their perspective on use cases and the role of gen AI in marketing and sales more broadly. Notably, we found cautious optimism across the board: respondents anticipated at least moderate impact from each use case we suggested. In particular, these players are most enthusiastic about use cases in the early stages of the customer journey lead identification, marketing optimization, and personalized outreach (Exhibit 1).

These top three use cases are all focused on prospecting and lead generation, where we’re witnessing significant early momentum. This comes as no surprise, considering the vast amount of data on prospective customers available for analysis and the historical challenge of personalizing initial marketing outreach at scale.

Various players are already deploying gen AI use cases, but this is undoubtedly only scratching the surface. Our research found that 90 percent of commercial leaders expect to utilize gen AI solutions “often” over the next two years (Exhibit 2).

Our research found that 90 percent of commercial leaders expect to utilize gen AI solutions “often” over the next two years.

Overall, the most effective companies are prioritizing and deploying advanced sales tech, building hybrid teams, and enabling hyper-personalization. And they’re maximizing their use of e-commerce and third-party marketplaces through analytics and AI. At successful companies, we’ve found:

Such trailblazers are already realizing the potential of gen AI to elevate their operations.

Our research indicates that players that invest in AI are seeing a revenue uplift of 3 to 15 percent and a sales ROI uplift of 10 to 20 percent.

Anticipating and mitigating risks in gen AI

While the business case for artificial intelligence is compelling, the rate of change in AI technology is astonishingly fast—and not without risk. When commercial leaders were asked about the greatest barriers limiting their organization’s adoption of AI technologies, internal and external risk were at the top of the list.

From IP infringement to data privacy and security, there are a number of issues that require thoughtful mitigation strategies and governance. The need for human oversight and accountability is clear, and may require the creation of new roles and capabilities to fully capitalize on opportunities ahead.

In addition to immediate actions, leaders can start thinking strategically about how to invest in AI commercial excellence for the long term. It will be important to identify which use cases are table stakes, and which can help you differentiate your position in the market. Then prioritize based on impact and feasibility.

The AI landscape is evolving very quickly, and winners today may not be viable tomorrow. Small start-ups are great innovators but may not be able to scale as needed or produce sales-focused use cases that meet your needs. Test and iterate with different players, but pursue partnerships strategically based on sales-related innovation, rate of innovation versus time to market, and ability to scale.

AI is changing at breakneck speed, and while it’s hard to predict the course of this revolutionary tech, it’s sure to play a key role in future marketing and sales. Leaders in the field are succeeding by turning to gen AI to maximize their operations, taking advantage of advances in personalization and internal sales excellence. How will your industry react?

Richelle Deveau is a partner in McKinsey’s Southern California office, Sonia Joseph Griffin is an associate partner in the Atlanta office, where Steve Reis is a senior partner.

The authors wish to thank Michelle Court-Reuss, Will Godfrey, Russell Groves, Maxim Lampe, Siamak Sarvari, and Zach Stone for their contributions to this article.

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