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In This Section

  • Classroom Materials
  • Approaches to Teaching
  • Teaching with DigHist
  • Resources for Globalizing the US History Survey
  • Resources for Tuning the History Discipline

The Decision to Secede and Establish the Confederacy: A Selection of Primary Sources

  • Plagiarism: Curricular Materials for History Instructors
  • How to Detect and Demonstrate Plagiarism
  • Teaching and Learning in the Digital Age

Sixteen Months to Sumter

  • History and Policy Education Program
  • Reacting to the Past

Classroom Materials: United States History

This site provides access to over 1,000 newspaper editorials detailing the shifting tides of emotion and opinion in the 16 months leading to Southern secession and the American Civil War. The site is intended primarily as a teaching resource, to enrich students’ exploration and understanding of the period and assist history teachers by expanding the available primary sources.

Online Course in American Indian History

A set of links to valuable public domain sites about American Indian History for undergraduate students, compiled by James W. Oberly as part of the 2004 project Teaching and Learning in the Digital Age.

Migration and the American South

A guide on teaching migration in the American South with digital sources, compiled by John Beck as part of the 2004 project Teaching and Learning in the Digital Age.

Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World

A project compiled by Jim Leloudis which focuses on the evolution of Piedmont mill towns presented in Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World. In each section, students and instructors can read a historical overview of the issues addressed, view photographs, listen to audio clips of interviews with mill workers, and access ideas for lesson plans based on the unit.

Web Modules for Teaching American History

David Huehner developed these web modules for use in a two-semester survey course of United States history. They may be used together or individually. The modules may be used as supplementary readings and materials for historical analysis that try to closely resemble the actual process of historical investigation.

The United States since the Civil War

Compiled by Mary Beth Emmerichs, this site contains links to groups of documents that can be used to generate discussions in the second half of the US history survey.

The 19th Century US Survey and American Religions through the Civil War

David Hoeveler provides reviews of web resources teachers might use in teaching either a 19th century US histoey survey or a course on American religion through the Civil War.

Sample Assignments from Globalized US History Courses

As part of her work in the Bridging Cultures program, Amy Forss employed wide-ranging techniques such as PechaKucha presentations, oral history research, and greater study of maps to engage her students in their globalized US history courses. She even had her students find historical recipes and try them out.

Honors 2111 US History Survey Course Description and Syllabus

Shannon Bontrager not only incorporated global contexts into his survey, but he also used non-traditional and digital pedagogical tools to engage his students.

Foundations of American History Syllabus

Sarah Grunder offers a detailed syllabus and two sample assignments, in which students use primary and secondary sources to connect American history with the Atlantic and Pacific worlds and write a paper that focuses on the circulation of commodities, peoples, and ideas throughout those worlds.

Paper Assignment: Encountering Commodities in the Atlantic and the Pacific Worlds

This sample assignment requires students to use primary and secondary sources to connect American history with the Atlantic and Pacific worlds and write a paper that focuses on the circulation of commodities, peoples, and ideas throughout those worlds. This paper assignment has three major parts: a list of sources for students to read and study along with guiding questions on each reading; a mapping exercise; and the five page paper.

Paper Assignment: Localizing Global Encounters, Case Study: New Netherland/New York (Suffolk County Community College)

This sample assignment requires students to use primary and secondary sources to connect American history with the Atlantic and Pacific worlds and write a paper that focuses on encounters between different groups of Europeans in New Netherland/New York. This paper assignment has three major parts: a list of sources for students to read and study along with guiding questions on each reading; a mapping exercise; and the five page paper.

Infusing the Pacific World into the US History Survey Courses: Recommended Reading

In this guide, Allison Frickert-Murashige provides reading recommendations for faculty looking to learn more themselves about the Pacific World before teaching it in their US history courses. She provides readings Bridging Cultures participants used to begin thinking about bringing the Pacific World into their courses, as well as recommended topics where this approach is useful.

Ideas for Conceptualizing the Pacific World within the US Survey Course, 1400-1850

In this guide, Allison Frickert-Murashige provides ideas of topics to include in a US history survey course incorporating the Pacific World.

Teaching Environmental History in the US and World History Surveys: Overview of Topics and Resources

This guide provides an overview of topics that faculty can consider in their US history survey courses in taking an environmental view of US and world history. It also provides a thorough list of recent scholarship on environmental history.

Lecture Topics for First Half of American History Survey

Brittany Adams focuses on incorporating more regional history into the early survey. She also emphasizes the importance of de-centering the British colonial narrative when teaching students who identify more with western US history, as do many of her students at UC Irvine.

Assignment: Social History of the Atlantic Slave Trade

Chinese immigrants in america in the 19th century: a study module.

These materials, produced by Vincent A. Clark as a result of his work in the Bridging Cultures program, consist of an illustrated introduction, excerpts from four contemporaneous articles, an online quiz (not included in these materials), and an assignment for an e-mail discussion. The introduction describes not only the life of the immigrants in the United States but their economic and cultural background in China. The goal is to expand the students’ knowledge to include the China from which these immigrants came. Two of the articles oppose Chinese immigrants; two praise them. They are designed to let students see the varying perceptions of the immigrants, the arguments for and against Chinese immigration, and the complex class and ethnic dimensions of this controversy.

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Extra Credit Assignment

As part of her work in the Bridging Cultures program, Cheryll Cody designed a course assignment using the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database. It requires students to answer a series of questions by looking at the database’s extensive collection of maps and charts.

The US Becomes an Empire, Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries

As part of his work in the Bridging Cultures program, Carlos Contreras provided some classroom assignments and activities that challenge students to think "Atlantically" and "Pacifically" as they think broadly about American history. This set of discussion questions focuses on the expansion of the US as it becomes an imperial power and has students critically examine the US-Caribbean relationship, Hawaii and the Philippines in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Discussion Questions on the Film Manifest Destiny

Us environmental history course topics through the civil war (santa monica coll.), resources for teaching american and hawaiian history.

This course revises traditional understandings of American history and examines issues of race, gender, and class in understanding the histories and contemporary experiences of Native Hawaiians, Asians, and Pacific Islanders to foster greater multi-cultural respect and understanding.

Video Assignment Based on Isabel Allende's Daughter of Fortune

Oscar Cañedo crafted this creative assignment about the California Gold Rush and the experiences of people traveling from South America to get to California. He used a story from prominent Latin American novelist Isabel Allende as a backdrop for the assignment. Students craft their own characters based on Isabelle Allende's novel Daughter of Fortune and produce videos to explain why they wished to make the arduous journey to California

Teaching World War One History through Food

This page provides five videos that explore the history of World War One through food. It is intended as a teaching resource to deepen students' knowledge and understanding of Americans' experience of World War One and to offer history teachers materials for their classroom use.

Revolutions, Independence and New Nations: The Great Transformation

As part of his work in the Bridging Cultures program, Carlos Contreras provided some classroom assignments and activities that challenge students to think "Atlantically" and "Pacifically" as they think broadly about American history. This set of discussion questions helps students consider the implications of revolution in the Atlantic world.

Films and Readings on the African Slave Trade and the Atlantic World

As part of his work in the Bridging Cultures program, Carlos Contreras provided some classroom assignments and activities that challenge students to think "Atlantically" and "Pacifically" as they think broadly about American history. This set of discussion questions helps students consider the complexities of the Transatlantic slave trade and the broader Atlantic world during the colonial era.

Africans in the Americas: Discussion Questions from Lepore, Benjamin, Articles, and Film

Teaching the american civil war from a transoceanic perspective.

In the following, Timothy Draper and Amy Powers provide ideas for ways of bringing global contexts into a unit or course on the American Civil War. They include useful topics to cover, along with primary and secondary source readings. Topics include Karl Marx on the Civil War, the war's impact on Hawaii, and the experience of various immigrant groups during the war.

Themes in the Social History of the United States: Migration and American Civilization, 1830s to 1960s

Syllabus for a survey of social history, focusing upon the American experience. The course explores changes in the family, work, sex roles, mobility, migration, urbanization, and industrialization.

United States History I: US History to the Civil War

An introduction to the methods of historical inquiry focusing on the study of American history from the beginnings through the American Civil War.

Ethnicity and American Cultures Topics Through the 19th Century

A syllabus by Leslie Kawaguchi that begins with the peopling of North America and ends with the establishment of the U.S. and the 1790 immigration policy that provided naturalization to “free white persons” despite the cultural, racial, and ethnic diversity of the colonial period.

Introduction to Ethnic Studies: Course Description and Syllabus

A course description and syllabus for an Intro to Ethnic Studies course taught by Kelli Nakamura at Kapi'olani Community Coll. that explores basic concepts and theories for analyzing dynamics of ethnic group experiences, particularly those represented in Hawai‘i, and their relation to colonization, immigration, gender, problems of identity, racism, and social class.

Introduction to Ethnic Studies: Lecture and Assignment Schedule

Details about the readings and lectures included in an Introduction to Ethnic Studies class taught by Kelli Nakamura at Kapi'olani Community College. The course revises traditional understandings of American history and examines issues of race, gender, and class in understanding the histories and contemporary experiences of Native Hawaiians, Asians, and Pacific Islanders to foster greater multi-cultural respect and understanding.

Discovering American Social History on the Web

Dan Kallgren developed several sample assignments for use in his undergraduate survey course "United States History Since the Civil War," in the spring of 2000. Assignments can be used inidividually or in series, as each is accompanied by suggested reading and primary sources.

The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

One of Dan Kallgren's assignments. Students read a section from "Out of Many; A History of the American People" by John Mack Faragher, et al., to contextualize primary source documents about the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. After analyzing the sources, the students write a short report.

The Anti-Saloon League

One of Dan Kallgren's assignments. Students analyze digital primary sources in order to contextualize and understand the motivation of the Anti-Saloon League members.

Mapping Suburbanization

One of Dan Kallgren's assignments. Using topographical maps from the University of New Hampshire, students explore how the landscape surrounding a 1950s New Hampshire city changed over time. Students are asked to consider how sociopolitical factors such as the Cold War might have affected the development of the United States.

Teaching Difficult Legal or Political Concepts: Using Online Primary Sources in Writing Assignments

Sue C. Patrick's shares syllabi from her United States History and Western Civilization courses, which include assignments and links to digital primary sources. She also reviews a number of digital primary sources for the benefit of other instructors interested in using them in the classroom.

Imperialism: European, American, and Japanese

A multi-part project compiled by Thomas Reins that considers the causes and consequences of modern imperialism, using China as a case study, by asking students to analyze a diverse set of primary sources.

JFK's Executive Orders and the New Frontier

One of Dan Kallgren's assignments. Students analyze executive orders from President Kennedy to draw out themes and place them in the context of Kennedy's agenda.

Syllabus: United States History Since the Civil War

Syllabus from Dan Kallgren's survey of American history since the end of the Civil War. The syllabus includes several digital primary source projects, all of which are hosted on separate pages as part of Kallgren's "Discovering America Social History on the Web" module.

United States History through the Civil War Syllabus

Sue C. Patrick's syllabus for a United States History through the Civil War course. The syllabus includes assignments and links to digital primary sources.

United States History from the Civil War to the Present Syllabus

Sue C. Patrick's syllabus for her United States History from the Civil War to the Present course, which includes assignments and links to digital primary sources.

New Perspectives on 19th-Century America [Assignment]

John Rosinbum uses American Panorama, a digital atlas created by the University of Richmond's Digital Scholarship Lab, to teach students about the economic, cultural, and territorial transformations that changed America during the 19th century. In this assignment, students must create their own visualization of changes in 19th-century America. Students must also develop a guide that defends their research choices in the creation of the visualization, explains how the visualization extends our current understanding of the period, and distinguishes their visualization from American Panorama.

Analyzing Visual Depictions of America's Expansion with American Panorama

John Rosinbum uses American Panorama, a digital atlas created by the University of Richmond's Digital Scholarship Lab, to teach students about the economic, cultural, and territorial transformations that changed America during the 19th century. In this sample assignment, he asks students to compare two maps from American Panorama dealing with the 19th century and explore how each map presents American expansion differently.

The American Historical Association encourages continued public debate about monuments to Confederate leaders and about the public spaces and buildings named after those individuals, as well as the role of Confederate flags in public culture. Historians’ recent experiences in media interviews have suggested that too few participants in these conversations have read the essential primary sources that clearly articulate the reasons for secession and the establishment of a new nation. This page links to a limited set of documents with a singular focus: why did state governments decide to secede and form a new nation?

history assignment term 2

PODCAST: HISTORY UNPLUGGED J. Edgar Hoover’s 50-Year Career of Blackmail, Entrapment, and Taking Down Communist Spies

The Encyclopedia: One Book’s Quest to Hold the Sum of All Knowledge PODCAST: HISTORY UNPLUGGED

history assignment term 2

Free History Worksheets

History Worksheet Mega-Pack!

Here you will find hundreds of free history worksheets designed by professional educators that can be adjusted for elementary, middle, or high school students.

These are nearly 500 student history worksheets in this package that cover all aspects of history, from Ancient Greece to World War One, World War Two, and the Cold War. The worksheets can be modified to accommodate K-12. Please feel free to share these on Pinterest or any other places where teachers’ resources are made available.  Included are full-color and black-and-white worksheets, word searches, quizzes, overviews, info graphs, diagrams, anagrams and activity sheets that provide everything you need to teach your class on any time period in history imaginable. Below are listed our currently available free student worksheets. More are to come.

  • How Much Can One Individual Alter History? More and Less...
  • Why Did Hitler Hate Jews? We Have Some Answers
  • Reasons Against Dropping the Atomic Bomb
  • Is Russia Communist Today? Find Out Here!
  • Phonetic Alphabet: How Soldiers Communicated
  • How Many Americans Died in WW2? Here Is A Breakdown

Course Resources

Discussions and assignments.

icon of a pencil cup

The assignments in this course are openly licensed, and are available as-is, or can be modified to suit your students’ needs.

If you import this course into your learning management system (Blackboard, Canvas, etc.), the assignments will automatically be loaded into the assignment tool. The assignment pages within each module link to the live assignment page. You can view them below or throughout the course. There is at least one discussion and one assignment ready to be used in every module of the course. We do not recommend assigning them all, however, and recommend selecting those that work best for you.

To make edits or customized versions of the assignments, we recommend copying and pasting the discussion or assignment text directly into your LMS discussion or assignment page in order to make changes.

Capstone Project: Create a Podcast

In addition to the module-specific assignments, the course includes a capstone project, in which students create a podcast. This is divided into three parts (and connected with podcast-related assignments in Module 7). If you choose to utilize the capstone project, we recommend introducing the project early, referencing it often, and providing students several weeks to work on each section, as shown in the outline below.

The capstone project components are shared as assignments that link to Google Documents. You can make a copy of those documents to customize them. To do so, open the Google Doc and choose “File -> Make a copy” to create your own version. Then be sure to update the hyperlink within the assignment page so that it directs to your unique version, or add your new instructions directly to the assignment page within the LMS.

  • Capstone Part 1
  • Capstone Part 2
  • Capstone Part 3

If interested in additional project ideas or generic course-level assignments, this google doc explains options for a primary source paper, visiting a museum, or watching a film .

  • Assignments. Provided by : Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Pencil Cup. Authored by : IconfactoryTeam. Provided by : Noun Project. Located at : https://thenounproject.com/term/pencil-cup/628840/ . License : CC BY: Attribution

Form 2 History Assignment 1

My Courses

History Grade 12 Revision Notes booklet and Essay Topics Guide for 2021-2023

History Grade 12 Revision Notes booklet and Guide for 2021-2023

On this page, you will find History Grade 12 Revision Notes booklet and Guide for 2021-2023, Paper 1 and paper 2.


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history assignment term 2

Table of Contents

Paper 1 History Grade 12 Essay Topics for Exams

Topic 1: The Cold War

  • Origins of the Cold War (Source-Based)
  • Extension of the Cold War : Case Study: Vietnam ( Essay )

Topic 2: Civil Society Protests from the 1950s to the 1970s

  • The US Civil Rights Movement (Source-Based) o The Black Power Movement (Essay)

Topic 2: Independent Africa

  • Case study: The Congo

What is included in the guide:

  • Cognitive Levels of questions
  • How to prepare for source-based questions
  • Skills in answering source-based questions
  • Essay writing skills
  • Examination Guidelines (2021 – 2023)
  • A mind map to give you the summary of the topic
  • A timeline and a list of concepts you must know
  • Sources with different levels of questions and answers
  • Essays questions and how you should approach it

Paper 2 History Grade 12 Essay Topics for Exams

Topic 1: Civil Resistance in South Africa 1970s to 1980s:

  • Internal Resistance (Source-Based Question)
  • Challenges to apartheid – BCM (Essay) Topic 2: The end of the Cold War and a new world order
  • Globalisation (Source-Based Question)
  • the impact of Gorbachev’s reforms on the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the impact on South Africa (Essay) Topic 3: Broad overview of the Coming of Democracy in South Africa and Coming to terms with the past

History Grade 12 Revision Notes booklet and Guide for 2021-2023

View all # History-Grade 12 Study Resources

We have compiled great resources for History Grade 12 students in one place. Find all Question Papers, Notes, Previous Tests, Annual Teaching Plans, and CAPS Documents.

More Questions and Answers from Previous Question Papers

What is more useful for a grade 12 learner than actual exam questions and answers from previous question papers? We have collected 100s of grade 12 questions and answers for Grade 12 subjects from all South African Provinces: Limpopo, Gauteng, Free State, North West, Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, KZN, Western Cape, and Mpumalanga. The questions and answers are for Term 1, Term 2, Term 3, and Term 4, for the following years: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, and 2018. Take a look at the links below , or search for more.

Don’t miss these:

Anglo-Boer War Questions and Answers History Grade 12

APS Score Calculator

Did you see these.

  • Anglo-Boer War Questions and Answers History Grade 12
  • History Grade 12 November 2022 Exam Question Papers and Memos Paper 1 + Paper 2
  • History Grade 12 May – June Mid Year Exam Question Papers for 2018 with Memorandum
  • History Grade 12 2021 June Past Papers and Memos
  • History Grade 12 exam guidelines – 2024 Scope pdf download
  • 2018 History Grade 12 November question papers and memos download
  • The Social and Economic Impact and Changes Brought about by the Natives Land Act of 1913
  • Beneficiaries of Racism in Germany and South Africa: A Comparative Analysis

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Guidelines for Learners and Teachers: Exemplar Responses​

1. INTRODUCTION  Assessment is a continuous, planned process of identifying, gathering and interpreting information about the  performance of learners, using various forms of assessment. It involves four steps: generating and collecting  evidence of achievement; evaluating this evidence; recording the findings; and using this information to understand  and assist with the learners’ academic development. Assessment should be both informal (assessment for learning)  and formal (assessment of learning). In both cases regular feedback should be provided to learners to enhance  the learning experience.  School-based assessment (SBA) is a purposive collection of learners’ work that tells the story of their efforts,  progress or achievement in a given area. The quality of SBA tasks is integral to learners’ preparation for the final  examinations. This booklet serves as a resource of exemplar SBA tasks to schools and subject teachers of History.  SBA marks are formally recorded by the teacher, for progression and certification purposes. The SBA component  is compulsory for all learners. Learners who cannot comply with the requirements specified according to the policy  may not be eligible to enter for the subject in the final examination.  The formal assessment tasks provide you with a systematic way of evaluating how well learners are progressing.  The booklet contains information on how to undertake research assignments, source-based tasks and essay  questions. Formal assessment tasks form part of a year-long formal programme of assessment. These tasks should  not be taken lightly and learners should be encouraged to submit their best possible efforts for final assessment.   The educators are expected to ensure that assessment tasks are relevant and suitable to the context in which  learners are being taught. However, all SBA should be aligned to the requirements prescribed in the Curriculum  and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) document.   This publication comprises four tasks that address the demands of the Grade 12 History curriculum. It is expected  that these tasks will serve as a valuable resource for: 

  • History teachers, in providing examples of the types and standard of school-based assessment tasks that  would be appropriate for their learners;  
  • Grade 12 History learners, in providing material that will assist them in their preparation for National Senior  Certificate examinations in History.


  • School-based assessment serves to provide a more balanced and trustworthy assessment system because  it includes a greater range of diverse assessment tasks than is possible in external examinations.  
  • The exemplar tasks are aimed at reflecting the depth of the curriculum content appropriate for Grade 12. 
  • It reflects the desired weighting of the cognitive demands as per Bloom’s revised taxonomy: remembering,  understanding, applying, analysing, evaluating and creating. 
  • School-based assessment improves the validity of assessment by including aspects that cannot be assessed  in formal examination settings. 
  • It improves the reliability of assessment because judgments are based on many observations of the student  over an extended period of time. 
  • It has a beneficial effect on teaching and learning, not only in relation to the critical analysis and evaluation  of History information and creative problem-solving, but also on teaching and assessment practices. 
  • It empowers teachers to become part of the assessment process and enhances collaboration and sharing  of expertise within and across schools. 
  • It has a professional development function, building up teachers’ skills in assessment practices which can  then be transferred to other areas of the curriculum. 
  • The tasks focus on the prescribed content as contained in the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement  (CAPS) effective from 2014.  

The distinctive characteristics of SBA (and its strengths as one relatively small component of a coherent assessment  system) have implications for its design and implementation, in particular the nature of the assessment tasks and  role of the teachers’ standardisation procedures. These implications are summarised as follows: 

  • The assessment process should be linked to and be a logical outcome of the normal teaching programme,  as teaching, learning and assessment should be complementary parts of the whole educational experience  (i.e. the SBA component is not a separate one-off activity that can be timetabled or prepared for as if it were  a separate element of the curriculum). 
  • The assessment process should provide a richer picture of what learners can do than that provided by the  external examination by taking more samples over a longer period of time and by more closely approximating  real-life and low-stress conditions (i.e. the SBA component is not a one-off activity done under pseudo-exam  conditions by unfamiliar assessors). 
  • The formative/summative distinction exists in SBA, but is much less rigid and fixed than in a testing culture,  i.e. learners should receive constructive feedback and have opportunities to ask questions about specific  aspects of their progress after each planned SBA assessment activity, which both enhance History skills and  help learners prepare for the final external examination (i.e. the SBA component is not a purely summative  assessment).
  • The SBA process, to be effective, has to be highly contextualised, dialogic and sensitive to learners’ needs;  i.e., the SBA component is not and cannot be treated as identical to an external exam in which texts, tasks  and task conditions are totally standardised and all contextual variables controlled. To attempt to do so  would be to negate the very rationale for SBA. Hence schools and teachers must be granted a certain  degree of trust and autonomy in the design, implementation and specific timing of the assessment tasks.  However, every effort must be made to comply with the Programme of Assessment as contained in CAPS. 

Teachers should ensure that learners understand the assessment criteria and their relevance for self- and peer assessment. Teachers should also have used these criteria for informal assessment and teaching purposes before  they conduct any formal assessment so that they are familiar with the criteria and the assessment process.  The project provides exemplar tasks that are aimed at: 

  • Reflecting the depth of History curriculum content appropriate for Grade 12 
  • Reflecting the desired cognitive demands as per Bloom’s revised taxonomy: remembering, understanding,  applying, analysing, evaluating and creating; 
  • Containing questions and sub-questions that reflect appropriate degrees of challenge: easy, medium and  difficult 
  • Focusing on the content of the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) effective in 2013 and contain exposure  to certain aspects of new content of the Curriculum & Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) effective from  2014 

3. ASSESSMENT TASKS AS OUTLINED IN CAPS   The final Grade 12 mark is calculated from the National Senior Certificate (NSC) examination that learners write  (out of 300 marks) plus school-based assessment (out of 100 marks). The curriculum policy document stipulates  SEVEN formal tasks that comprise school-based assessment in History.


5. QUALITY-ASSURANCE PROCESS FOLLOWED    To ensure that there is compliance with the requirements of SBA in History, an example of how to undertake  research is given below.   Introduction  The research assignment in Grade 12 accounts for 20% of the total school-based assessment (SBA). It is, therefore,  essential that this be a significant piece of work. This assignment offers learners the opportunity to demonstrate  their skills, knowledge and understanding of History which they have acquired during the course of the FET phase.  The research assignment can be written on any section of the Grade 12 curriculum. There are, however, two  sections in the curriculum, which are not formally examined in the final Grade 12 examination: 

  • An overview of civil society protests 
  • Remembering the past: Memorials  

It is recommended that one of these topics be investigated as a research project.  Some points to consider when planning a research assignment: 

  • The choice of research topic needs to be made, taking into consideration the context of your school and the  available resources to which learners have access.  
  • This assignment provides learners with an opportunity to embark on a process of historical enquiry.  Conducting original research involves the collection, analysis, organization and evaluation of information,  and the construction of knowledge.  
  • Clear, written instructions with due dates and the assessment criteria must be given to learners at the  beginning of the school year to allow adequate time for the preparation and completion of the assignment.  
  • The progress of learners, with regard to the research assignment, must be monitored on an on-going basis.  
  • It is essential that learners submit original work. To reduce the likelihood of plagiarism, the key question or  research topic should be changed every year. 

Learners are expected to fulfil the following requirements in their research assignment: 

  • Analyse and answer the key question.  
  • Identify a variety of relevant source materials to help answer the key question.  
  • Select relevant examples from the source material which can be used to substantiate the line of argument. 
  • Organise relevant information in order to write a coherent and logical answer to the key question. 
  • Write an original piece of work, using your own words. 
  • Correctly contextualise all sources, including Illustrations and maps, which have been included.
  • Reflect upon the process of research and consider what has been learnt.  
  • Include a bibliography of all the resources which have been consulted in the course of researching and  writing the assignment.

Some suggestions of what can be done with the research assignments when they are completed: 

  • The research assignments should be displayed at your school, community hall or local library. Exhibiting the  learners’ work is very important. It gives learners a sense of purpose and shows them that their ideas and  efforts are of value to their school and community. 
  • Learners could give an oral presentation of their research projects to the class, grade, school or local  community. This gives learners the opportunity to speak about their research and share their ‘new-found’  knowledge.  
  • Organise a class debate on the key question.  
  • Hold a History evening at which learners could be given an opportunity to present their work to friends,  family and members of the community. Further, this will be an ideal platform to showcase the work of the  school’s History department in an endeavour to promote the subject History at the FET level.

TABLE SHOWING HOW TO STRUCTURE AND CARRY OUT RESEARCH  KEY QUESTION: How was the role of women in the struggle against apartheid different from that of  men? 



STATEMENT OF AUTHENTICITY:  I hereby declare that ALL pieces of writing contained in this research assignment, are my own original  work and that if I made use of any source, I have duly acknowledged it.  

LEARNER’S SIGNATURE:____________________________________________ 



Teacher’s name:_______________________ 

Teacher’s signature:___________________ 

Learner’s signature:____________________ 

ANNEXURE C: LIST OF SUGGESTED RESOURCES WITH A SYNOPSIS  (IN ITALICS)  BOOKS:  Berger, I ., Threads of solidarity: Women in South African industry, (Indiana University Press, 1991) . This book details women’s changing place in formal and casual work. It explores the relationship between  women across the colour lines as workers and members of trade unions.  Bernstein, H. , For their triumphs and for their tears. Women in Apartheid South Africa. (IDAF, 1985 ).  This booklet gives a great deal of very useful information about how women lived, worked, struggled and  survived in apartheid South Africa.   Bozzoli, B. with Nkotsoe, M., Women of Phokeng (Ravan Press, 1991) .  This book traces the life histories and experiences of 22 black women from the small town of Phokeng.   Cock, J., Colonels and cadres. War and gender in South Africa, (OUP, 1991 ).  This book contains interviews with women who served in both the SADF and MK and analyses their experiences.  Cock, J., Maids and madams . A study in the politics of exploitation , (Ravan Press, 1989). An investigation into experiences of women domestic workers during apartheid.  Du Preez Bezdrob, A.M. Winnie Mandela a life. (Paarl: Paarl Printers. 2003).  Gordon, S., A talent for tomorrow. Life stories of South African servants (Ravan Press, 1985). A book that contains the life stories of 23 people, most of whom are women, who worked as domestic labourers  under aparthei d.   Human, M.; Mutloatse, M. & Masiza, J. The Women’s Freedom March of 1956. (Pan McMillan (Pty Ltd), 2006). Luthuli, A. , Let my people go, The Autobiography of Albert Luthuli. (Paarl Printers, 2006).  Mashinini, E., Strikes have followed me all my life (The Women’s Press, 1989).  The autobiography of Emma Mashinini who was secretary of one of South Africa’s biggest black Trade Unions,  the CCAWUSA (the Shop and Distributive Workers’ Union).  Naidoo, P. , Footprints in Grey Street. (Ocean Jetty Publishing, 2002). Platzky, L. & Walker, C., The surplus people. Forced removal in South Africa (Ravan Press, 1985). The creation of racially separate areas was the cornerstone of apartheid policy. The majority of people who were  forcibly removed in order to create this artificial separation were women and children. This book documents their  experiences and their struggle to survive.  Vahed, G. & Waetjen,T., Gender modernity and Indian delights. The Women’s Cultural Group of Durban 1954- 2010 (HSRC, 2010).  Part social history part biography, this book shows how the women in the Durban Cultural Group creating an  identity for themselves in the context of apartheid.  Walker, C . , Women and gender in Southern Africa to 1945. (New Africa Books, 1990). Gives valuable background information about the experience of women in South Africa. It sets the scene for a  discussion of the 1950s–1970s.  Walker, C ., Women and resistance in South Africa. (Onyx Press, 1991).  This remains the most detailed historical account of women’s resistance during apartheid. Walker has chapters  on the Federation of South African Women, Anti-Pass protests, the Women’s Charter of 1954, among others.  South African History Online, ‘ For freedom and equality’, Celebrating women in South African history (DBE, no  date).   This booklet contains information about women’s involvement in the liberation struggle. There are a number of  biographical profiles of great South African women. I t can be downloaded from the South African History Online  website at: http://www.sahistory.org.za/aids-resources/freedom-and-equality-celebrating-women-south-african history-booklet  Malibongwe Igama Lamakhosikama. Praise be to women. Remembering the role of women in South Africa  through dialogue (Nelson Mandela Foundation, 2007).  The text in this booklet is the edited version of the Malibingwe Dialogue which took place on 30 May 2007 at the  Nelson Mandela Foundation.  It can be downloaded from the following website:  http://www.nelsonmandela.org/uploads/files/Malibongwe_WEB.pdf  

WEBSITES:  www.blacksash.org.za  Full digital texts of the Black Sash publication Sash is available from 1960-1990.  http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/womens-struggle-1900-1994   South African History Online. This site has a wide range of information about women’s struggles in South Africa  1900-1994.  http://www.anc.org.za/themes.php?t=Women`s%20Struggles   This site, maintained by the ANC, has documents concerning women in the liberation struggle

ORAL INTERVIEWS  There is a saying in Mozambique that ‘our old people are our libraries’. If you are living in an area where it is difficult  to access the Internet, or do not have a local library, then remember that the people living in your community have  a wealth of information in their memories. You may consider conducting interviews with women and men in your  community and recording their stories as evidence to answer your key question.



  • For a book: Author (last name, initials). Title of book (Publishers, Date of publication). Example: Dahl, R. The BFG . (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1982).
  • For an encyclopaedia:  Encyclopaedia Title , Edition Date. Volume Number, ‘Article Title’, page numbers. Example: Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997. Volume 7, ‘Gorillas’, pp. 50-51.
  • For a magazine:  Author (last name first), ‘Article Title’. Name of magazine . Volume number, (Date): page numbers. Example: Jordan, Jennifer, ‘Filming at the top of the World’. Museum of Science Magazine . Volume 47, No 1,  (Winter 1998): p 11.
  • For a newspaper:  Author (last name first), ‘Article Title’. Name of Newspaper. City, state publication. (Date): edition if  available, section, page number(s). Example: Powers, Ann, ‘New Tune for the Material Girl’. The New York Times . New York, NY. (3/1/98): Atlantic  Region, Section 2, p 34.
  • For a person:  Full name (last name first). Occupation, date of interview. Example: Smeckleburg, Sweets. Bus Driver. 1 April 1996.
  • For a film:  Title , Director, Distributor, Year. Example: Braveheart , Director Mel Gibson, Icon Productions, 1995. 


SOURCE 1C  This is part of an interview that was conducted with the former South African Prime Minister, BJ Vorster, by  Clarence Rhodes of UPITN-TV (United Press International Television News) on 13 February 1976.  

The following is a transcript of a news bulletin that was presented by the South African Broadcasting Corporation  (SABC) on 10 August 1982. 

*Barbarian: a negative word used by the apartheid regime to refer to activists from the liberation  movements which operated in exile.  ** Terrorist: a word used by the apartheid regime to refer to freedom fighters. 

SOURCE 2B  The following extract focuses on the assassination of anti-apartheid activist and attorney, Griffiths Mxenge, on 20  November 1981.  

SOURCE 2C  The following statement was issued by the Amnesty Committee of the TRC. It focuses on the reasons for the  granting of amnesty to Dirk Coetzee, Almond Nofemela and David Tshikilange for the murder of Griffiths Mxenge. 

SOURCE 2D  The following report by the South African Press Association (SAPA) outlines the reasons for the Mxenge family’s  opposition to the process of amnesty. 

SOURCE 2E  The following is part of an interview that Shaun de Waal, reporter from the Mail and Guardian, conducted with  Mahmood Mamdani about South Africa’s TRC process. Mamdani is an African academic and current director of  the Makerere Institute of Social Research. 

QUESTION 3  WHAT IMPACT DID GLOBALISATION HAVE ON THE NEW WORLD ORDER? SOURCE 3A  The following extract focuses on the phenomenon of globalisation.  

SOURCE 3B  The following source is a diagrammatic representation of the different features of globalisation. 

SOURCE 3C  The following article by the World Economic Forum Survey focuses on how people from 25 countries viewed  globalisation. 

SOURCE 3D  The following article by Prabhakar Pillai is entitled ‘The Negative Effects of Globalisation’. It focuses on his views  about globalisation. 

SOURCE 3E  A photograph showing activists protesting against the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in Washington in 1999. 

QUESTION 1  WHY DID SOUTH AFRICA BECOME INVOLVED IN THE ANGOLAN CIVIL WAR?  Study Sources 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D to answer the questions that follow.  1.1 Refer to Source 1A. 

1.1.1 Which organisation did the apartheid government support during the Angolan civil war? (1 x 1) (1)  1.1.2 List FOUR Angolan economic installations that were targeted by the South African Defence Force.  (4 x 1) (4)  1.1.3 Using the information in the source, explain THREE reasons why the apartheid government felt  threatened by the MPLA leadership in Angola. (3 x 2) (6)  1.1.4 In the context of the Angolan civil war, explain why the MPLA requested assistance from Cuba  and the USSR. (1 x 3) (3) 

1.2 Study Source 1B. 

1.2.1 What message does the cartoon convey regarding the Soviet Union’s support for the MPLA in  Angola? Explain your answer using the visual clues in the cartoon. (2 x 2) (4)  1.2.2 Explain to what extent this cartoon may be regarded as biased. (2 x 2) (4)

1.3 Consult Source 1C. 

1.3.1 According to Kaunda, which TWO communist countries supported the MPLA? (2 x 1) (2) 1.3.2 Define the term communism in your own words. (1 x 2) (2)  1.3.3 Explain why Prime Minister Vorster did not consider Angola as ‘an independent black African  country’. (2 x 2) (4)  1.3.4 Comment on Prime Minister Vorster’s reference to the word ‘communists’ in the context of the  Angolan civil war. (1 x 2) (2) 

1.4 Use Source 1D. 

1.4.1 Quote TWO negative words that were used to describe the South West Africa People’s Organisation  (SWAPO) on the SABC news bulletin. (2 x 1) (2)  1.4.2 How did the SABC justify the deaths of the 15 SADF airmen and soldiers who were killed in  Angola? (2 x 2) (4)  1.4.3 Explain to what extent the information in Source 1D would be useful for a historian researching  the use of propaganda during South Africa’s participation in the Angolan civil war. Use relevant  examples from the source to support your answer. (2 x 2) (4) 

1.5 Use the information in the relevant sources and your own knowledge, to write a paragraph of about 8 lines  (about 80 words) explaining why South Africa became involved in the Angolan civil war. (8) 

QUESTION 2  HOW SUCCESSFUL WAS THE TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION (TRC) IN HEALING OUR  PAST?  Study Sources 2A, 2B, 2C and 2D to answer the questions that follow.  2.1 Study Source 2A. 

2.1.1 When and where was South Africa’s first TRC hearing held? (2 x 1) (2) 2.1.2 Define the concept reconciliation in your own words. (1 x 2) (2)  2.1.3 Explain why the TRC chose to use the slogan ‘Healing Our Past’ during its hearings, as shown in  the photograph. (1 x 2) (2)  2.1.4 Comment on why you think the TRC was considered to be a significant event in South Africa’s  history. (1 x 3) (3)  

2.2 Consult Source 2B. 

2.2.1 Name the THREE apartheid operatives who were charged with the murder of Griffiths Mxenge.   (3 x 1) (3)   2.2.2 How, according to Nofemela, was Griffiths Mxenge murdered? (2 x 2) (4)   2.2.3 Why, do you think, were the three apartheid operatives found guilty of the killing of Mxenge but  not sentenced? Support your answer with relevant evidence. (2 x 2) (4) 

2.3 Use Source 2C. 

2.3.1 Explain why the THREE apartheid operatives were granted amnesty. (1 x 2) (2)  2.3.2 ‘It will not be necessary for the trial court to proceed with the question of sentence.’ Why, do you  think, was this statement made? (1 x 2) (2) 

2.4 Refer to Sources 2B and 2C. Explain to what extent an historian would consider the information in Sources  2B and 2C useful when writing about the granting of amnesty to those responsible for the death of Griffith’s  Mxenge. (2 x 2) (4) 2.5 Read Source 2D. 

2.5.1 How did Griffiths Mxenge’s family react to the application for amnesty of the three apartheid  operatives? (1 x 2) (2)  2.5.2 Explain why the Mxenge family responded in this manner to the granting of amnesty to the three  apartheid operatives. (2 x 2) (4) 

2.6 Consult Source 2E. 

2.6.1 How does Mamdani view the manner in which the TRC dealt with the victims of apartheid?   (1 x 2) (2)  2.6.2 Mamdani suggests that the TRC process was flawed. What change did he propose that might  have made the TRC more successful in its attempt to ‘heal’ the past? (1 x 2) (2)  2.6.3 Comment on the meaning of Mamdani’s statement: ‘The TRC was only interested in, ‘Did you give  the orders in this case, that case?’ ‘ (2 x 2) (4)   2.7 Use the information in the relevant sources and your own knowledge, to write a paragraph of about 8 lines  (about 80 words), explaining to what extent the TRC was successful in healing our past. (8) 

QUESTION 3  WHAT IMPACT DID GLOBALISATION HAVE ON THE NEW WORLD ORDER?  Study sources 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D and 3E and answer the questions that follow.  3.1 Use Source 3A. 

3.1.1 Define the term globalisation in your own words. (1 x 2) (2)  3.1.2 Quote the TWO types of integration mentioned in the source in the context of globalisation.  (2 x 1) (2)   3.1.3 According to the information in the source, what might be the negative effects of removing tariffs  on the economies of developing countries situated on the African continent? (2 x 2) (4) 

3.2 Study Source 3B. 

3.2.1 Using the information in the source, identify THREE features of globalisation. (3 x 1) (3)  3.2.2 Explain whether you think these changes (as identified in QUESTION 3.2.1) have had a positive  or a negative impact on the various countries of the world. Support your answer with relevant  evidence. (3 x 2) (6) 

3.3 Refer to Source 3C. 

3.3.1 According to the information in the source, why did an increasing number of people favour  economic globalisation? (1 x 2) (2)  3.3.2 Quote any TWO positive aspects that the global survey revealed about globalisation. (2 x 1) (2)  3.3.3 As a historian, explain the limitations of using this source when researching the effects of  globalisation. (1 x 3) (3) 

3.4 Consult Source 3D. 

3.4.1 Identify FOUR negative effects of globalisation. (4 x 1) (4)  3.4.2 Explain how globalisation contributed to the negative effects (as identified in QUESTION 3.4.1).  Support your answer with a valid reason. (1 x 2) (2) 

3.5 Refer to Sources 3C and 3D. Explain how the information in these sources would be useful to a historian  studying globalisation. (2 x 2) (4)  3.6 Refer to Source 3E. 

3.6.1 What TWO factors, do you think, prompted activists to embark on protest action? (2 x 1) (2)  3.6.2 Comment on the significance of the words, ‘Global Injustice’, as shown on the banner, in the  context of globalisation. (1 x 2) (2)  

3.7 Consult Source 3D and Source 3E and explain how the information in these sources support each other  regarding the negative effects of globalisation. (2 x 2) (4)   3.8 Use the information from the relevant sources and your own knowledge, to write a paragraph of about  8 lines (about 80 words), explaining how globalisation has created a new world order from 1989 to the  present. (8) 

6. ASSESSMENT TASKS: ESSAY QUESTIONS  1. TOPIC 1: CHINA OR VIETNAM  QUESTION 1A: CHINA  Discuss to what extent Mao transformed China from an underdeveloped country to a super power between 1949  and 1976. [50]  QUESTION 1B: VIETNAM  ‘ ... All the military might of a superpower could not defeat a small nation of peasants.’  Critically discuss this statement in the light of United States of America’s involvement in Vietnam between 1965 and  1975. Use relevant examples to support your answer. [50]   2. TOPIC 2: INDEPENDENT AFRICA   QUESTION 2: CONGO AND TANZANIA  Write a comparative essay on the political successes and challenges that post-colonial leaders of both the Congo and  Tanzania faced between the 1960s and the 1980s. [50]  3. TOPIC 4: CIVIL RESISTANCE IN SOUTH AFRICA: 1970S TO 1980S   QUESTION: 4: THE CRISIS OF APARTHEID IN THE 1980S  Explain how internal mass civic resistance and international pressure contributed to the demise (fall) of the  apartheid regime in the 1980s. [50] 

4. TOPIC 5: THE COMING OF DEMOCRACY IN SOUTH AFRICA AND THE COMING  TO TERMS WITH THE PAST   QUESTION: 5: THE NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT AND THE GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY Allister Sparks argues that the process of negotiation ‘was always a crisis-driven process’.  Critically assess Allister Spark’s statement with reference to the process of negotiation in South Africa between  1990 and 1994. [50]



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INTRODUCTION  This research project examines the role played by women during the liberation struggle and attempts to answer  the question of how different the role of women was to that of men during the struggle against apartheid. Albertina  Sisulu, one of the most important leaders of the anti-apartheid resistance, has argued that women fought ‘side-by side’ with men; but she also suggested that they were particularly vulnerable to oppression because of their role  as mothers and wives. This research assignment presents evidence which supports Albertina Sisulu’s statement.  In answering this question, I have studied a variety of sources. These sources include books by historians,  documents, oral sources, the Internet and other media. My approach is to look at the strategies employed by a  selection of dedicated women who played a key role in the liberation struggle.  In The Women’s Federation March of 1956, Lilian Ngoyi, is singled out as one of the significant leaders who  represented the struggle of millions of black South African women.  

‘She found herself, as do millions of black women across the land, the victim of both race  and sex discrimination. She demonstrated that it was possible not only to transcend the limits  imposed on her in this way, but that the struggle in South Africa could not be successfully  waged unless women and women’s issues constituted a central part of liberation strategy.  Neither the state with all its might, nor morality could really silence these phenomenal women’  

 (Human, M., Mutloatse, M. & Masiza, J. 2006:62). 

This statement is the starting point of my research assignment. It has been said that during apartheid millions of  black South African women faced the triple oppression of being black, being women and being poor. This research  assignment shows how some women challenged the social convention that women should look after the home,  and men should be the authority figure and play a central role in politics. The women discussed in this assignment  demonstrated that during the apartheid years, women not only played a key role as wives and mothers but also as  political activists and anti-apartheid campaigners. In addition, although there was no feminist movement in South  Africa in the apartheid period, sometimes black and white women did unite to fight against apartheid, for example,  the anti-pass protest in 1956 organised by the non-racial Federation of South African Women (FEDSAW).  I seek to identify how South African women fought to overcome the many challenges and limitations imposed on  them because of their gender as well as by the repressive policies of the National Party government.  

BACKGROUND  The resistance by black women to racial inequality in South Africa began long before apartheid was officially  introduced in 1948. As early as 1912, women were involved in a passive resistance campaign in support of the  black and Indian miners who were striking for better wages and improved working conditions. Also, in 1913, in the  Free State, black and Coloured women resisted the carrying of passes.   In 1918, Charlotte Maxeke established the Bantu Women’s League to resist the pass laws. The reason they joined  the Bantu Women’s League and not the ANC was due to the fact that women were not allowed to be members  of the ANC at that time. The resistance of women to the racially discriminating laws continued into the 1930s.  The activism of women took on a new dimension when women were finally permitted to join the ANC in 1943. In  addition, they formed the ANC’s Women’s League and Ida Mtwana became the first president.  In 1948, the National Party government came to power and introduced the policy of apartheid in South Africa.  During the apartheid years (1948–1994), South Africa was a divided society where people’s status and rights were  determined by their race. It was a country where the minority white government passed laws to segregate and  discriminate against the majority black population. This policy included laws such as the Population Registration  Act that classified all South Africans according to race and the Group Areas Act that forced people to live in racially  segregated areas. There were many women who reacted with anger, frustration and outrage at these unfair and  unjust laws. Many of these women became anti-apartheid activists and their resistance to apartheid cost them  dearly.   During the 1950s, women became more militant and in 1952, the Defiance Campaign drew many women into  civil disobedience and activism against the unjust apartheid laws. Partly in response to their experiences during  the Defiance Campaign, a new women’s organisation was established in 1954. The Federation of South African  Women (FEDSAW) united women of all racial groups, from various organisations, including the ANC, the SAIC  (South African Indian Congress), the Non-European United Front, various trade unions and civic associations.  This was a multi-racial women’s organisation which included teachers, nurses and factory workers as well as  housewives. These women pledged to draw up a Women’s Charter to end inequality. This Women’s Freedom  Charter began with the words: 

‘We, the women of South Africa, wives and mothers, working women and housewives,  African, Indian, European and Coloured, hereby declare our aims of striving for the  removal of all laws, regulations, conventions and customs that discriminate against  us as women and that deprive us in any way of our inherent right to the advantages,  responsibilities and opportunities that society offers to any one section of the population.’ 

 In 1956 FEDSAW jointly organised a 20 000 strong march to the Union Buildings in Pretoria to protest against the  extension of the pass laws to African women. Although this campaign did not lead to a repeal of the pass laws,  the show of strength and unity by women encouraged other women to continue the struggle. In the decades that  followed women continued to persevere and pursue the dream of equality and a democratic South Africa. 


The men and women involved in the liberation struggle paid a heavy price for democracy and freedom: 

‘These were people who sacrificed families, homes, communities and incomes. They  weren’t home for bedtimes and quality time. They weren’t there to talk after a bad day.  They missed their parents’ funerals and cousins’ weddings. Freedom was won by those  that dreamt up a maybe, an element of uncertainty, a risk’ (Naidoo, P., 2002:12).  

This research assignment focuses on ‘these people’. In particular, it focuses on the women who sacrificed time with  their children and families to pursue the struggle against apartheid. I intend to show how these women stepped out  of their conventional domestic roles to play an important part in the liberation movement in South Africa. Through  their experiences we can better understand that political freedom in South Africa has come at a cost.   Women played many different roles in the struggle. They raised their own children and the children of others,  held down jobs and maintained households. They also defended the oppressed, established new organisations,  supported the families of political prisoners and those in detention. They helped to establish organisations,  hospitals, colleges and institutes, assisted the unemployed, obtained scholarships for the underprivileged,  organised protests, attended conferences, travelled abroad, lectured. They were banned, placed under house  arrest, detained, imprisoned and in some cases were killed for demanding democracy and equal rights for all  South Africans.  Albertina Sisulu, was one such woman. She was a nurse, a mother, a wife and became one of the most important  anti-apartheid political activists, earning her the title ‘Mother of the Nation’ for her selfless dedication to the liberation  struggle. She took on leadership positions in both the ANC Women’s League and the Federation of South African  Women.   Albertina Sisulu became the first woman to be arrested under the General Laws Amendment Act and was jailed for  two months, during which she was harassed and taunted psychologically. She was placed in solitary confinement  in 1981 and 1985, banned and subjected to house arrest. The book, Winnie Mandela, A Life, recounts Albertina  Sisulu’s support of Winnie Mandela in prison: 

‘As a result of the appalling conditions and the shock of her situation, she started  haemorrhaging. Terrified that she was having a miscarriage, Winnie sank to her knees  and buried her head in her hands. Albertina Sisulu, a trained midwife, realised that  something was terribly wrong, and pushed the women surrounding Winnie out of the  way so that there was enough room for her to lie down. Albertina took off her own jacket  and wrapped it around Winnie to keep her warm, and gave strict instructions that she  was not to move. The simple, basic care paid off, and Winnie’s baby was saved’  

 (Du Preez Bezdrob, 2003:78) 

This was an unwavering act of compassion. It also shows the vulnerability of women activists during their fight for  freedom.   As a ‘negotiator’ in the political arena, Albertina Sisulu established international networks and support bases for the  anti-apartheid movement. In the late 1980s she led a delegation of the United Democratic Front (UDF) leaders to  Europe to meet British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, and to the USA to meet US President, George Bush Sr.  to gain support for the liberation movement. In 1994, Albertina Sisulu served as a member of parliament in South  Africa’s first democratic government. These examples from Sisulu’s life story illustrate the role that women played  as activists, but also show that at times women experienced their oppression differently to men.  Another woman who played a key role in the liberation struggle was Fatima Meer. Born in Durban, Meer was  the daughter of an ordinary shop assistant, journalist and editor of Indian Views. Durban is a multi-cultural city  and Meer established the Durban and District Women’s League to promote good relations between Indians and  Africans and through this organisation initiated a number of social-welfare projects.   In 1946 Fatima Meer participated in the passive resistance campaign organised by the South African Indian  Congress against apartheid laws. In 1952 she took part in the Defiance Campaign which had been inspired by  SAIC’s earlier campaign and four years later in the women’s anti-pass campaign.  Fatima Meer was also a close friend of Nelson and Winnie Mandela and served six months in detention with  Winnie Mandela because of her involvement with the Black Women’s Federation. In her book, Higher than Hope,  Fatima Meer recalled that Nelson Mandela did not even discuss some of his decisions with his family, but took it  for granted that their support would be unconditional. Therefore, women also need to be acknowledged for the  supporting role they played and the way they suffered as a result of their husbands’ and fathers’ involvement in  resisting the apartheid government.   Like many of her male comrades, Fatima Meer was banned from 1952 to 1954 under the Suppression of Communism  Act. Her banning orders restricted her movements and she could not publish or engage in any political activity.  During the 1960s Fatima Meer lectured in the sociology departments at the Universities of Natal and the  Witwatersrand (this in itself was a noteworthy achievement for a woman at that time), and took a particular interest  in education. In 1953 the Black Education Act was introduced by HF Verwoerd. This Act had a devastating  impact on the South African black population as it delivered an unequal, inferior education system. Black children  were educated to become unskilled labour and to remain inferior in apartheid society. Meer was aware that there  was a high illiteracy rate among Africans, both in townships and rural schools where children had little access to  formal education. In order to address the desperate need for education among the African population, she initiated  school building programmes in Umlazi, Port Shepstone, Phambili and Inanda. She also established a craft centre  in Phoenix and later founded the Khanyisa school project for African children and the Tembelihle Tutorial College  to train African students in secretarial skills and established a craft centre for the unemployed to teach them sewing  and knitting. Meer’s projects helped to empower black women by teaching them skills that allowed them to become  self-sufficient and self-employed in order to better support their families.  It is clear that Meer channelled much of her human resources into trying to improve the quality of education  amongst black South African children and saw that this was important to help realise the dream of a South African  democracy.   Another great woman activist was Lilian Masediba Ngoyi. She was the daughter of a miner and a domestic  worker. She played a significant role in the struggle as a teacher, an activist, a treason trialist, a trade unionist,  a founding member of FEDSAW and later became president of the ANC Women’s League. Ezekiel Mphahlele  described her as ‘the woman factory worker who is tough granite on the outside, but soft and compassionate deep  down in her...’ (Human, M.; Mutloatse & Masiza,J., 2006:63).  Lilian Ngoyi also played a pivotal role during the Defiance Campaign when she was arrested for using a post  office reserved for whites only. The prominent presence of women during this campaign, alongside their male  counterparts, strengthened the unity that existed in the struggle against repression in South Africa.  As a founding member of the Federation of South African Women (FEDSAW), she played a key role in organising  the anti-pass demonstration to Pretoria in 1956. The introduction of passes for women was an attack on women’s  domestic roles, their ability to look after their children and their homes, which forced many into political activism. In  a letter to government, FEDSAW stated the following: 

‘At a Congress of Mothers held in Johannesburg in August 1955, the many women  present unanimously passed a resolution that a mass deputation of women of all races  should be sent to the Union Building … As women, we shall protest particularly against  the proposed extension of the pass system to African women and against the housing  conditions in which many thousands of African families must live.’  

During the women’s march to the Union buildings on 9 August 1956, the women famously told the Prime Minister  Strijdom: 


Albert Luthuli, former president of the ANC, described the strength of women during the anti-pass march to Pretoria  by saying: 

‘Our women have played a major part in conferences and demonstrations. Furthermore,  women of all races have had far less hesitation than men in making common cause  about things basic to them’ (Luthuli, A., 2006:188).  

This was an example where women of all races united to resist the repressive apartheid government. This point of  view was reinforced by Albertina Sisulu when she said:  

‘Well, the 9th of August to us was an eye-opener. In the sense, that we thought that men  could really be the people to carry reference books. But when it turned to us, we felt it’s  something else now. So, all we had to do was to rally the women against you, you know  accepting the reference books for women. Because we said, you know, we have got our  reference books, our children to look after we just had no business and did not have any  business to carry passes like men. We have seen the problem, what the passes have  done to our men – being arrested at work and you are waiting for him. Let us say no to  the reference books’  

 (Human, M.; Mutloatse & Masiza, J., 2006:113). 

Lillian Ngoyi was arrested in 1956 for high treason. She spent a significant amount of time in solitary confinement.  An extract from her biography highlights the price that she paid for her activism against the apartheid regime: 

‘The authorities were determined to silence Lillian and, in 1962 she was given further  restrictions, confining her to her suburb of Orlando in Soweto. She survived as best she  could, sewing from home. The Special Branch (Security Police) would try to scare away  her customers by threatening them with prison, or accusing them of subversive activities  …’  

 (Quoted in Bottaro, J.; Visser, P. & Worden, N., 2012:206). 

For Ngoyi’s selfless struggle in fighting against the apartheid regime the ANC awarded her the prestigious  Isitwalandwe/Seaparankoe Award.  One of the other leaders in the 1956 women’s march to Pretoria was Helen Joseph. Born in England, Joseph  came to South Africa as a teacher in 1931. After leaving to serve in the Air Force in World War II, she returned  and worked with the Garment Workers Union as a Social Welfare Officer. Here she met Solly Sachs, who was  a communist hated by Afrikaner nationalists for organising young Afrikaans women into a multi-racial Garment  Workers’ Union. Joseph also joined the South African Congress of Democrats (SACOD), an organisation that was  affiliated to the ANC and encouraged white activism against apartheid.   Before moving to South Africa, Joseph had worked as a teacher in India and came to embrace the meaning behind  the Hindu greeting ‘namaste’ (the God in me honours the God in you). If God is in everyone, how could we ever  discriminate, or fail to help those who are harmed? This philosophy influenced her to act against the inequalities  of apartheid.   Helen Joseph had the opportunity to read out the clauses of the Freedom Charter at the Congress of the People  and played a key role in the formation of FEDSAW and the women’s march in 1956. Alongside other anti-apartheid  activists, Joseph was arrested and charged with high treason and banned in 1957. While in prison she suffered  great hardship and humiliation at the hands of the government officials, which she faced with courage, and single minded determination. The evidence below illustrates the strength and commitment of these women in the struggle  for freedom. 

From the police cells, the women were moved to the Fort, the prison in Braamfontein  which was totally unprepared for the sudden influx of so many awaiting-trial prisoners.  There were not enough blankets, sleeping mats, toilets or food for the women, who milled  around in the main hall and on a second-floor balcony while waiting to be processed.  They were lined up in groups, ordered to undress, and told to squat so that warders could  conduct vaginal searches for contraband. Then the women were told to dress again and  shown to the cells – filthy, stinking and lice-riddled. (Du Preez Bezdrob, 2003:77) 

In the book, Winnie Mandela A Life, we come across the strength shown by Helen Joseph and others who endured  difficult circumstances in their fight for liberation. She became a good friend of Winnie Mandela and was regarded  as a mother figure. She provided advice and support for others. Therefore, we can appreciate her role as adviser  and friend. Helen Joseph, together with the Anglican Church, arranged for those who could not be visited to be  sent money by postal order from family members. Her role can be seen as a humanitarian reaching out to those  in distress. Helen Joseph was awarded the ANC’s highest award Isitwalandwe/Seaparankoe medal to symbolise  integrity and courage.  The youngest leader of the 1956 Woman’s march was Sophie Williams. Born in Port Elizabeth, she went to work  in a textile factory as a young girl. She soon became known for her negotiating skills and was appointed as shop  steward within the Textile Workers’ Union. She was identified as a leader while still a teenager and in 1955 was  appointed as the full-time organiser for the Coloured People’s Congress in Johannesburg. In the 1960s Williams  followed her husband, Benny de Bruyn, into exile where she worked for the ANC in Zambia and Tanzania. After  years of activism in exile, Williams returned to South Africa in 1990 when opposition parties were unbanned. Her  role in the struggle had taken a different path to that of those women who had remained in South Africa but she  continued to play a role in the struggle for a democratic South Africa.

CONCLUSION  In answering the key question on how different the role of women was to that of men during the apartheid struggle,  I have highlighted the roles played by some of the most significant South African women. In attempting to do this,  I looked at the strategies they employed and the different forms of protest undertaken by women as compared to  that of men. There were many other women who played an important role in the liberation struggle, for example  Ray Alexander, Elizabeth Mafekeng, Frances Baard, Mabel Balfour, Mary Moodley, Liz Abrahams, Viola Hashe,  Rita Ndzanga and Phylis Naidoo. Many other women, ordinary mothers, wives and workers who were not known  outside their communities, the unsung heroines of the struggle, also played a very important role. Due to space  constraints I have been unable to discuss more examples in this research project.   I have identified how various South African women challenged the National Party government and, in the end,  succeeded. In his book, Let My People Go, Albert Luthuli portrays African women as ‘a formidable enemy of the  oppression’ (Luthuli, A., 2006:187). In my research assignment, it is evident that the strength and determination  shown by women, inspired and encouraged their husbands, brothers, sons and comrades who fought alongside  them during the struggle for freedom and challenged the National Party government. Luthuli made the prophetic  observation:  

There will be enormous, peaceful change in South Africa before the end of this century.  People of all races will eventually live together in harmony because no one, white, black  or brown wants to destroy this beautiful land of ours. Women must play an increasingly  important role in all areas of the life of the future. They were and remain the most loyal  supporters in all our struggles. (Luthuli, A, 2006: p.xxii) 

This quotation is from of one of our four South African Nobel Prize winners and acknowledges the significant role  played by women in all spheres of life. During the apartheid years women undertook various multi-tasking roles  – as wives, mothers, workers and activists. Their roles played in the liberation struggle must never be forgotten.  South Africa salutes all women.  

EVALUATION AND REFLECTION  I have learnt a lot from writing this assignment. I did not know that women had played such a large role in the  struggle or that they had suffered so much. Writing this research project was very difficult and I had to organise  my time very well. I used the local library and it took a long time to read and organise my notes. My teacher  made useful comments on both my first and second drafts of this project which gave me direction and focus. I reorganised material and tried harder to use the life stories of the women I had chosen to study to answer the key  question. I think I should have said more about these women’s family lives as well but it was quite difficult to find  information and I ran out of space and time. I enjoyed researching and writing this assignment, although it took up  a great deal of time.

BIBLIOGRAPHY  Angier, K. (et al), Viva History Grade 12: Learner’s Book. (Johannesburg: Vivlia, 2013).   Bottaro, J.; Visser, P. & Worden, N., In Search of History. Grade 11. Learner’s Book. (Cape Town: Maskew Miller  Longman (Pty) Ltd, 2012).  Du Preez Bezdrob, A.M., Winnie Mandela a life . (Paarl: Paarl Printers, 2003). Friedman, M.; Saunders, C.; Jacobs,  M.; Seleti, Y.; & Gordon, J., Looking into the Past. Grade 11 Learner’s Book. (Cape Town: CTP Printers, 2011).  Human, M.; Mutloatse, M.; Masiza, J., The Women’s Freedom March of 1956. (Johannesburg: Pan McMillan (Pty  Ltd), 2006).  Light, J. & Johanneson, B., Celebrating Women in South African History (www.sahistory.org.za,) (DBE, 2012). Luthuli, A., Let My People Go, The Autobiography of Albert Luthuli. (Paarl: Paarl Printers, 2006). Naidoo, P., Footprints in Grey Street. (Durban: Ocean Jetty Publishing, 2002).  Pillay, G. (et al), New Generation History Grade 12: Learner’s Book . (Durban: Interpak Printers, 2013).  Shaw, G., Believe in miracles, South Africa from Malan to Mandela - and the Mbeki era . (Paarl: Paarl Printers,  2007).  Retrieved from: http://heritage. The times.co.za/memorials/gp/Lilian Ngoyi/article on 4 June 2013. Retrieved from: http:// www.sahistory.org.za/people/professor Fatima Meer on 4 June 2013. Retrieved from: http:// www.sahistory.org.za/people/lillian-masediba-ngoyi on 4 June 2013.


TOTAL = 85/100

NAME OF LEARNER:_____________________________________ 

GRADE: ________________________ 


COMMENTS:  This is a well-researched and well-written piece of research – excellent work. You made a very good attempt  to formulate and sustain a line of argument with regard to the key question. You used a variety of sources to  substantiate the line of argument, which is excellent.   However, this research assignment could have been strengthened if relevant visual sources were used, at the  appropriate points, to supplement your historical narrative. Finally, although you link back to the key question in  places, you tend to focus on the separate struggles of women and not when they fought ‘side-by-side’ with men as  stated in the question. I am glad that you enjoyed this research project. Well done! 

TEACHER’S SIGNATURE:____________________________________ 

DATE: ___________________________________________________


1.1.1 The apartheid government supported UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) during  the Angolan Civil War. ✔  1.1.2 Angolan economic installations targeted by the SA Defence force were the oil and railway and port  installations; iron mines and electricity lines and factories.✔ ✔✔✔  1.1.3 The apartheid government felt threatened by the MPLA because it was multi-racial, therefore undermined  the social and racial policies of apartheid. ✔✔ Secondly, it supported ANC training bases openly, thereby  supporting the SA liberation groups which sought to destroy the apartheid regime, i.e. supported the enemies  of the SA apartheid government✔✔. Thirdly, the MPLA supported SWAPO, the Namibian liberation group  which was fighting the SA forces in South West Africa and seeking political liberation from the domination of  SA✔✔  1.1.4 During the Angolan Civil War, the SA army invaded Angola in support of the UNITA (Pro-capitalist) rebel  group which sought to overthrow the governing MPLA government. The SA army reached an area close to  the capital and UNITA forces followed behind them, capturing towns where the SA forces had overthrown  and defeated the local MPLA ruling groups. Therefore, the country was in danger of a total coup by the SA backed pro-capitalist UNITA forces. In this context, the MPLA government had no choice but to seek aid  from the Communist bloc in order to stop the invasion of SA troops and the defeat of the MPLA by UNITA.  ✔✔✔ 

1.2.1 The message conveyed by the cartoon is that the USSR, portrayed as SANTA in his sleigh, is generously  supplying arms to the MPLA as SANTA generously brings presents at Christmas time. ✔✔ These weapons  will be used to destroy the UNITA and FNLA forces in the Angolan civil war - as there is a pun on the word  ‘sleigh’-it is written as ‘slay’, i.e. to kill✔✔.   1.2.2 It may, to a large extent, be regarded as biased as it comes from the cartoon archives of Great Britain, who  supported capitalism and democracy during the Cold War era when the Angolan civil war took place ✔✔.  It therefore portrays the USSR in a negative light as an ‘evil SANTA’ bringing weapons to cause death and  destruction in its bid to spread communism in Africa in its support of African political groups. ✔✔ 

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1.3.1 The Soviet Union ✔and Cuba✔  1.3.2 It is an economic system whereby the government controls all the means of production, where free enterprise  is forbidden and individual freedom is less important than the interests of the community. ✔✔  1.3.3 Vorster felt that black Angolans were being exploited by the desires of communist Cuba to spread communism  in Angola ✔✔ and therefore were not being supported in their bid for independence as black Angolans. He  felt the Cubans would be likely to stay in Angola in order to use Angola as a springboard or basis from which  to spread communism to other African countries in the region and so continue to influence Angola’s policies.  ✔✔ 1.3.4 The Angolan Civil War took place during the Cold War when capitalist and Communist ideologies were  in conflict in various parts of the world. In South Africa the government represented SWAPO and ANC as  communists, and communism was portrayed as anti-Christian and undemocratic. Vorster uses the term  ‘communist’ repeatedly in this interview to justify South African involvement in the Angolan civil war. ✔✔ 

1.4.1 ‘terrorists’ ✔; ‘barbarian’ ✔  1.4.2 The SABC justified their deaths by making it appear as though they had died fighting a ‘holy war’ in order to  protect and maintain civilisation and preserve Christian values ✔✔ and prevent the take-over of SWA by the  ‘barbarian’ SWAPO ‘terrorists’, bent on causing death and destruction. ✔✔  1.4.3 Source 1D would be very useful to a historian researching the use of propaganda, as the source shows  the use of negative, emotive words such as ‘terrorist’ and ‘barbarian’ when describing SWAPO. ✔✔ It also  shows how the SA defence force’s participation and invasion of Angola is justified as a ‘holy war’ fought to  protect Christian values and maintain civilisation. It shows how the SA public was indoctrinated to support  the actions of the SA defence forces as morally correct ✔✔ (rather than revealing their main aim to be  defence of the white minority rule in South Africa and Namibia).  

1.5 South Africa became involved in the Angolan Civil War in an attempt to remove the Marxist MPLA party  which had established themselves as the government after the Portuguese colonists withdrew from Angola  in 1974. SA wanted to create a pro-capitalist independent African country on its border as it would not  be likely to support the ANC and SWAPO and allow their training bases on Angolan soil. Therefore, SA  invaded Angola after independence, supporting UNITA in the civil war which had broken out before elections  could be held. South Africa wanted to establish a pro-capitalist government in Angola which would support  the capitalist apartheid government in SA. A conventional war was waged in Angola and its economic  infrastructure was destroyed in order to weaken the MPLA government and allow the UNITA movement to  take over. As the MPLA approached the communist Eastern bloc for help in this situation, SA promoted itself  as the bastion of Christian values and civilisation and its invasion of Angola as a legitimate war to protect the  Southern African region from ‘terrorists’ and ‘barbarians’, as the MPLA was openly supportive of ANC and  SWAPO bases in Angola. ✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔ 

  • Uses relevant evidence e.g. demonstrates a thorough understanding of why South Africa became involved  in the Angolan civil war.  
  • Evidence relates well to the topic. 
  • Uses evidence very effectively in an organised paragraph that shows an understanding of the topic.   [50/50]

QUESTION 2  2.1  

2.1.1 From 15 to 18 April 1996. √   In East London.√  2.1.2 It means to bring people of different races together after the atrocities of apartheid. √√  2.1.3 The TRC chose the slogan ‘healing the past’ because the gross human rights violations that many,  especially, black South Africans had experienced could not be forgotten. It had to be investigated so that  ‘victims’ and ‘perpetrators’ could face each other, which would ultimately bring about a process of healing.  √√  2.1.4 It was significant because for the first time in post-apartheid South Africa a real effort was made to deal  with South Africa’s painful past so that a united nation could be formed. √√√ 

2.2.1 Dirk Coetzee√, Almond Nofomela, √ David Tshikilange√  2.2.2 Griffiths Mxenge was beaten, stabbed and struck on the head with a wheel spanner. √√ He fell to the ground and died because of these serious wounds. √√  2.2.3 In terms of the law, the sentencing of the three apartheid operatives was postponed because the TRC had  not made a final decision. √√  The TRC was waiting for the Amnesty Committee to tell it what to do regarding the three apartheid  operatives. √√ 

2.3.1 The TRC was satisfied with the reasons given by the three apartheid operatives for committing heinous  human rights violations because they were politically motivated. They were acting under direct orders from  a few National Party leaders and further that they were engaged in the struggle against the ANC. √√  2.3.2 Amnesty was granted to all three policemen and it was therefore not necessary for the trial court to  proceed with the question of sentencing. √√  

2.4 The sources would be useful for the following reasons: 

  •  Source 2B gives information about the men who were actually responsible for the killing of Mxenge.  √√
  • Source 2C outlines the role of the Amnesty Committee in conducting thorough investigations into  the actions of the three apartheid operatives and how their superiors issued the order to have  Mxenge killed. √√

2.5.1 They opposed Coetzee’s application for amnesty, saying that it would be a travesty of justice. √√ 2.5.2 They felt that Coetzee and his co-accused did not meet the criteria for amnesty. √√  They also felt that there was no evidence to suggest that killing their political opponents fell within the  course and scope of their duties as members of the security police. √√ 

2.6.1 Mamdani felt that the focus of the TRC was too narrow and it did not take the sufferings of the ‘victims’  seriously. √√  2.6.2 The TRC could have informed white South Africans that many of them had actually benefitted from  apartheid. √√  2.6.3 For Mamdani, the TRC was not concerned about real reconciliation and nation building. It only focused on  individual cases and therefore lost its relevancy for uniting South Africa. √√  He also felt that the emphasis of the TRC was on who gave the orders to kill apartheid activists rather that  educating all white South Africans on how they had benefitted from apartheid. √√ 

2.7 The TRC was not entirely successful in healing South Africa’s past. It was set up by the government  to hear testimonies from the perpetrators of human rights violations which had been committed during  the apartheid era. This mandate was not fulfilled in its entirety. The TRC did not adequately heal South  Africa from its divided past, for example the Mxenge family felt that the granting of amnesty to their  brother’s killers was a travesty of justice. They felt that the act of killing Griffiths was reason enough to  prosecute them in a court of law. The amnesty committee felt that the apartheid operatives were acting  under instructions at the time. Finally, many families of victims were not satisfied with the TRC’s attempt  to bring closure to their painful past, hence it was not successful. √√√√√√ 

Level 2 – Evidence is mostly relevant and largely relates to the topic. Uses evidence in a basic manner.  Some gaps in knowledge. [47/50]

QUESTION 3  3.1  

3.1.1 Globalisation refers to an integrated system whereby various countries of the world trade with each other to  boost their economic and political ties. This is influenced largely by technological advancement.√√  3.1.2 Negative integration√   Positive integration√  3.1.3 This will lead to many developing African countries importing goods such as electronic car parts, clothes,  etc. which can be imported at a cheaper price than would be paid for similar goods produced in Africa. √√  The importation of cheap goods would lead to increased unemployment in industries located in African  countries. √√ 

3.2.1 Free trade√; communication√; outsourcing√  3.2.2 Free trade – For developing economies ‘free trade’ would have a negative impact because governments  would not be able to protect the local industries from monopolisation, labour brokers and low wages. √√  Communication and the use of technology – positive effect. It has ensured that international sporting events  such as the Soccer, Rugby or Cricket World Cup tournaments that were held in South Africa could be  broadcast across various countries throughout the world. √√  Outsourcing - negative impact. Big companies in their quest to increase profits and cut expenditure usually  employ non-permanent staff. This leads to the casualisation of labour with negative consequences for  workers. √√ 

3.3.1 They felt that globalisation would deliver several positive benefits in a number of economic and non-economic  areas. √√  3.3.2 Free trade√   Benefits in a number of economic and non-economic areas. √  3.3.3 This survey was only conducted in the mainly ‘Group of 20’ countries which are in Europe, North America  and Asia. The views of people from many other countries have not been considered. √√√ 

3.4.1 Increase in child labour and slavery√; high pollution levels√;   the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer√;   fast food is making people unhealthy√  3.4.2 Globalisation has led to the creation of monopolies and this has resulted in an unfair distribution of wealth  among developed and developing countries. √√

3.5 These sources would be useful to a historian studying globalisation for the following reasons:  Source 3C is an opinion poll on globalisation and it provides the views of people from a variety of countries.  It provides insight into the views that people in developed and developing countries hold on globalisation. √√  Source 3D offers an insight into the negative aspects of globalisation. √√ 

3.6.1 The absence of trade unions in some countries, hence reference to ‘workers voices’ on banner. ‘free  economies’ referring to the removal of trade barriers by the WTO which entrench poverty√; global injustice.  √  3.6.2 ‘Global injustice’ refers to the injustices faced by people living mainly in developing countries in  Africa and elsewhere which they say was caused by the WTO. √√ 

3.7 The sources 3D and 3E support each other in the following ways:  Source 3A – speaks of the negative impact of globalisation in all countries of the world √√ and Source 3D  supports this point of view by showing a visual image of activists protesting against the WTO. √√  3.8 Globalisation involves a worldwide integration of the various economies using the advances made in  technology. After the fall of communism in 1989, Russia joined the key developers like USA, Japan and  Western Europe in the world of trade and economy. Globalisation has both positive and negative effects on  the world. On the positive side, some, mainly developed countries, have benefitted from communication and  trade. They have made advances in technology and infrastructure. However, not all countries have benefited  from globalisation. Poor and developing countries have not really benefitted from globalisation. They  face poverty, exploitation, child labour and under-development. There is a growing digital divide between  countries with access to new technology and those without. Hence the new world order that globalisation  has created has both positive and negative effects. √√√√√ 

Level 2 – Evidence is mostly relevant and mainly relates to the topic. Uses evidence in a basic manner.  Some gaps in knowledge   [47/50]

7. GUIDELINES FOR LEARNERS AND TEACHERS:   EXEMPLAR RESPONSES – ESSAY QUESTIONS  QUESTION: 1B: VIETNAM  ‘ ... All the military might of a superpower could not defeat a small nation of peasants.’  Critically discuss this statement in the light of the United States of America’s involvement in Vietnam  between 1965 and 1975. Use relevant examples to support your answer.  When the USA became involved in Vietnam, it was for all the right reasons in terms of the opinions America held  about communists. Because of the USA’s superior resources and technology, they expected that it would be  quick victory over North Vietnam. The outcome was very different from their expectations. This essay explains the  reasons for the USA’s unexpected defeat.   America became involved in the war against North Vietnam to prevent the spread of communism. As a capitalist  country, the USA was against anything communist. They had set it as one of their objectives to do what they  could to protect smaller weaker countries from being infiltrated by the communist ideology. The USA feared the  domino effect and believed they had a responsibility to protect capitalist South Vietnam from being overtaken by  communist North Vietnam, which was being supported by China and the USSR.   The USA believed that it would be an easy war against North Vietnam. They had superior resources at their  disposal, sophisticated weapons, and innovative technology. It was meant to be over and done with quickly. No  one could have foreseen what awaited them. One reason for the USA’s defeat was that Vietnam is a dense, jungle  country, which didn’t give the Americans much opportunity to use their highly advanced weapons, let alone move  along smoothly. The North Vietnamese adopted tactics and warfare that used this to their advantage.   The North Vietnamese were fighting to maintain their independence. They wanted to unite North and South  Vietnam into one communist country. Many people in South Vietnam supported the North Vietnamese – these  were called the Viet Cong. The Vietnamese were seasoned veterans, having fought a successful war against  French colonialism and Japanese occupation during World War II. They used guerrilla tactics against the US  troops such as booby traps, hit-and-run, and their ability to blend with the civilians frustrated the US troops greatly  and led to much loss of life for the US. In contrast, the US army had mostly inexperienced conscripted soldiers. The  average age of a US soldier fighting in Vietnam was 19 years. The US troops soon lost hope and morale, because  they were fighting a war for a country that didn’t belong to them and for a cause they did not believe in.   The great loss of life and the hopeless situation, also resulted in criticism and lack of support back home. There  were protests to end the war and return the young men home. The Vietnam war was the first war to be televised.  Images of burning villages and dying civilians were broadcast into ordinary Americans homes and they lost support  for the war. Demonstrations and rallies were held across the USA, which criticised the war and the government.  The US, in their frustration, employed unorthodox measures to gain the upper hand. They used things like napalm  on enemy soldiers. Civilians at home were also on the receiving end, as this napalm burned to cinders whatever  it came into contact with. They used chemicals like Agent Orange which was a defoliant to clear the leaves off  trees to prevent the Viet Cong from using them as cover. It was later proved that this Agent Orange was the cause  of cancers and birth defects that became widespread in Vietnam. For all these things America received much  criticism from the world and people lost respect for them as a country that stood for good, especially as a result of  brutal scenes involving citizens. America eventually lost the war and so their objective to curb the spread of communism was not realised. The war  effort had cost a great deal, not only in material resources but also in lives lost. The war having been lost, many  people were critical of America and its involvement. They saw the loss of lives and resources to have been part of  the atrocities committed in Vietnam and many veterans regretted having fought in Vietnam.  The USA had expected to win a quick victory against North Vietnam, but despite superior weapons they lost to one  of the smallest countries in the world. There were a number of reasons why the USA lost this war but the loss of  support from the American population and the determination of the Vietnamese people to win their independence  played a significant role.   Comments: 

  • The question has been answered and the content selection is relevant to the line of argument.
  • The essay has been planned and a line of argument developed. 
  • Evidence has been used to defend the argument. 
  • This essay could be improved by planning more carefully before writing. Each paragraph should contain  one clear idea of why the USA lost the war against North Vietnam. Relevant evidence must be used to  substantiate the line of argument.  

QUESTION 5A: THE NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT AND THE GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY Allister Sparks argues that the process of negotiation ‘was always a crisis-driven process’.  Critically assess Allister Sparks’ statement with reference to the process of negotiation in South Africa  between 1990 and 1994.   Allister Sparks’ assertion that the process of negotiations was ‘crisis-driven’ is to a large extent accurate. The years  1990 to 1994 were a turbulent political journey. The release of Mandela and political prisoners (1990) in conjunction  with other positive social reforms set the negotiating process in motion. However, for every achievement of the  negotiating process, there was a violent event that jeopardised its foundation. Yet negotiations and settlement  persevered and in just four short years the country moved from a policy of division to one of democracy. The ANC  and the NP were the main role-players in the process but many other organisations were involved as well.  Talks began on 2 May 1990 between Mandela (ANC) and De Klerk (NP). The main aim of these talks was to  outline the principles for the release of political prisoners and the granting of indemnity for those in exile. A working  group was established and a broad agreement known as the Groote Schuur Minute was signed. Talks would  continue later. However, violence occurred at Sebokeng when the Inkatha hostel dwellers planned a raid on ANC  supporters. Thirty people were killed. The police were warned about the attack but did nothing to stop it. There was  evidence of ‘third force’ involvement. This threatened to break down talks completely. However, the negotiating  process forged ahead and the Pretoria Minute was subsequently signed. Mandela announced the suspension of  the armed struggle and the NP would lift the state of emergency in South Africa. However, violence among the  ANC, NP and Inkatha continued.   The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) was established in 1991 and pertained to the principles  of the new constitution. Talks were held at the World Trade Centre in Kempton Park (19 groups represented)  and agreement was reached. The interim constitution would be drafted by a multi-party conference, and the final  constitution by the first elected parliament. The Declaration of Intent was signed to pledge all parties’ commitment  to the negotiating process.   CODESA 2 was held in 1992 but talks failed as parties could not agree to the interim government in terms of the  new constitution. Another violent event occurred. The Boipatong massacre occurred when Inkatha hostel dwellers  again attacked ANC supporters. Forty-nine people were killed and it was alleged that Inkatha members were  helped by the police. The ANC decided to walk out of CODESA 2 and began a campaign of ‘rolling mass action’  in order to put pressure on the government to agree to its conditions. The fear of civil war now became a reality  and it became clear to political role players that there was an urgent need to restart negotiations. This led to the  Record of Understanding.  Secret talks were held between the NP and the ANC but violence again flared up, in Bhisho (Ciskei). Unarmed  ANC protestors were attacked by the Ciskeian government’s soldiers. Twenty-eight people were killed, resulting in  mass action against the NP government.  The deadlock between the NP and the ANC was broken, with the multi-party negotiating process being set up to  pick up from where CODESA 2 had left off. This illustrates the level of commitment to reform with which Mandela  led the ANC. It symbolised that the ANC was assertive and resolute in their will for positive change in South Africa.  Violence jeopardised the goodwill of the agreement once again. On 10 April 1993, the Chief of Umkhonto we  Sizwe, Chris Hani, was murdered. The country was thrust into violent rampages and 70 people were killed in  the resulting violence. Mandela was called to address and pacify the nation. This indicates Mandela’s power and  presence for peace and stability in the country. Hani’s death created an urgency for negotiations to be finalised. The negotiated settlement then occurred and resulted in democracy. It stated that parties who won more than  20% of the eligible votes could choose a deputy president and the president would be obliged to consult with the  deputies. The election date was decided upon and the appropriate structures were put in place for the approaching  general elections. However, not all South Africans accepted the transition to democracy. The Afrikaner weerstandsbeweging (AWB), a right-wing, conservative organisation stormed the World Trade Centre in armoured  vehicles and threatened to break down the process of negotiations and demanded a volkstaat. The commitment of  the key role players, in particular Nelson Mandela, was the backbone of the negotiations process. Despite violence  and disruption, democracy was achieved.  On 27 April 1994, South Africa experienced its first democratic election. Over 20 million people voted. The ANC  represented hope and change for the majority of South Africans. The ANC won the elections and Nelson Mandela  was inaugurated as the president of South Africa. It is therefore evident that Mandela, being a man of peace and  quiet strength, was able to change the country for the better and to embrace democracy. The final constitution was  ready for implementation in 1996.  It can therefore be concluded that the years 1990 to 1994 were a mixture of negotiations (Pretoria Minute, CODESA,  etc.) and violence (Sebokeng, Boipatong etc.). Yet the country was miraculously able to transcend obstacles and  become a rainbow nation with an advanced constitution. While some of the role-players had tried to undermine the  negotiations, others had worked hard throughout to bring about a new democratic South Africa.  Comment: 

  • The question has been answered and the content is fully relevant to the line of argument. 
  • This is a well-planned and well-structured essay.  
  • This essay could be improved through developing an original, well-balanced and independent line of  argument with evidence used to sustain and defend the argument throughout. 


1.1.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 1A – L1] 

  • UNITA (1 x 1) (1)

1.1.2 [Extraction of evidence from Source 1A – L1]  

  • Oil Installations 
  • Electricity lines 
  • Iron mines 
  • Factories (any 4 x 1) (4)

1.1.3 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 1A - L2] 

  • Angola was a multi-racial democratic country (South Africa’s apartheid ideology was based on the  principal of racial separation). 
  • The Angolan government followed a Marxist ideology (SA government was capitalist and anti communist). 
  • Angola allowed the ANC to establish training camps (SA government feared that these would be  bases from which South Africa would be attacked). 
  • Angola offered support for the South West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO) who were fighting  for liberation from South African control. (any 3 x 2) (6) 

1.1.4 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 1A – L2]  Yes, the MPLA was justified. 

  • South Africa had invaded Angola.  
  • The MPLA felt threatened by South Africa and was unable to defend its rule without calling for external  support. 
  • South Africa offered military training and support to MPLA’s Opponents, UNITA and FNLA.   Any other relevant answer. (any 1 x 3) (3)

1.2.1 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 1B – L2] 

  • The Soviet’s support caused destruction (bombs falling off the sleigh and exploding on the ground). 
  • The Soviets sent a large quantity of weapons to Angola. (The cartoon shows the sleigh piled high with  different weapons) 
  • Any other relevant response. (2 x 2) (4)

1.2.2 [Evaluation of bias in Source 1B – L3]  To a large extent because:  

  • The title of the cartoon ‘Slay Bells’ implies that the weapons being sent to Angola would cause death  (slay means to kill) 
  • The cartoon shows a town being destroyed by the weapons being carried by the Soviet Union sleigh.   Any other relevant answer.  

To a lesser extent because: 

  • It was accurate to show that the Soviet Union sent large quantities of weapons to Angola. 
  •  The weapons sent to Angola from the USSR caused a great deal of death and destruction.  Any other relevant answer. (2 x 2) (4) 

1.3.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 1C – L1] 

  • The Soviet Union 
  • Cuba (2 x 1) (2) 

1.3.2 [Definition of concept from Source 1C – L1] 

  • A society based on the principals of communal ownership of property, the redistribution of wealth, no  production for profit and no class structure. (1 x 2)(2) 

1.3.3 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 1C – L2] 

  • He believed that Angola was being controlled by communists. 
  • He stated that there were tens of thousands of Cuban troops in Angola. 
  • Any other relevant answer. (2 x 2) (4) 

1.3.4 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 1C – L2] 

  • He referred to the Cuban forces that fought on behalf of the MPLA. 
  • He used the word communist repeatedly because he saw the Cuban presence in Angola as a  communist threat. 
  • He was anti-communist. 
  • Any other relevant answer. (1 x 2) (2)

1.4.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 1D – L1] 

  • Terrorist (2 x 1) (2) 

1.4.2 [Extraction of evidence from Source 1D – L1] 

  • They died to ‘maintain civilisation’.  
  • They died for the ‘preservation of the norms and values of a Christian society’. (2 x 2) (4) 

1.4.3 [Ascertaining the usefulness of Source 1D – L3]   Very useful because it shows that 

  • The public broadcaster was not neutral – highly emotive and negative language was used to describe  the liberation movements (‘terrorists’, ‘barbarians’). 
  • The South African public was given a one-sided version of the civil war in Angola and the Namibian  liberation movement was referred to as ‘SWAPO terrorists’. 
  • The death of soldiers in the border war was portrayed as a just cause – a ‘sacrifice’ to ‘preserve’  ‘civilisation’ and ‘Christianity’. 

1.5 [Interpret, analyse and evaluate information from Sources 1A-D - L3]  Learners need to include the following points in their answer: 

  • Angola was seen as a threat to South Africa.  
  • Angola was a multi-racial, Marxist country. Its success would undermine the capitalist apartheid South  African state. 
  • Angola supported liberation movements such as SWAPO.  
  • Angola received military aid from communist countries.  
  • Vorster (SA Prime Minister) believed there was a communist conspiracy to dominate the world and  Angola was of strategic importance.  
  • Angola was supporting SWAPO in their attempt to liberate Namibia from South African control. 
  • Vorster feared that it was important to win the war in Angola to preserve South African ‘civilisation’,  and ‘Christian values’, which were under threat from liberation movements who were supported by  Angola.  Any other relevant answer.

Use the following rubric to allocate a mark: 


  • 15 April 1996 
  • East London (2 x 1) (2) 

2.1.2 [Definition of historical concept from Source 2A – L1] 

  • The act of reconciling or the process of making compatible. 
  • To endeavour to reconcile differences of the past in order to heal the nation. (any 1 x 2) (2) 

2.1.3 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 2A – L2] 

  • The TRC chose ‘Healing our Past’ so that it would be able to ensure that the truth concerning the  human rights violations in South Africa was not erased or forgotten but investigated, recorded and  exposed. 
  • Through the TRC process people who suffered the injustices of the past might find closure and be  able to move on with their lives. 
  • Any other relevant answer. (any 1 x 2) (2)

2.1.4 [Interpretation and evaluation of evidence from Source 2A – L3] 

  • The TRC was a significant event in SA’s history as it focused on healing the past and building a united  nation. 
  • It provided support with regard to amnesty, reconciliation and reparation. 
  • Any other relevant answer. (any 1 x 3) (3) 

2.2  2.2.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 2B – L1] 

  • Dirk Coetzee 
  • Almond Nofemela 
  • David Tshikilange (3 x 1) (3) 

2.2.2 [Extraction of evidence from Source 2B – L1] 

  • He was struck on the head with a wheel spanner.  
  • Fell to the ground and was repeatedly stabbed. (2 x 2) (4) 

2.2.3 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 2B – L2] 

  • Sentencing was postponed until the TRC committee had reached its decision. 
  • The TRC was waiting for the Amnesty Committee to make its final decision 
  • Any other relevant response. (any 2 x 2) (4) 2.3 

2.3.1 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 2C – L2] 

  • The TRC was satisfied that their motives were politically motivated - taking orders from a higher  authority, the Security Branch of the South African Police. 
  • They applied for amnesty, attended the hearing and the Commission was satisfied that they had  disclosed the truth. 
  • Any other relevant response. (any 1 x 2) (2) 

2.3.2 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 2C – L2] 

  • Because they had been granted amnesty by the TRC they could not be tried in a criminal court.  (1 x 2)(2) 

2.4 [Ascertaining the usefulness of evidence from Sources 2B and 2C – L3]   Learners need to make reference to both Sources 2B and 2C in their responses: 

  • Source 2B is useful as it focuses on the assassination of Griffiths Mxenge and provides details as to  when and how he died as well as who killed him. 
  • Source 2C provides valuable information as to who gave the instructions and orders to kill Mxenge. 
  • Both sources are useful because they give insight into the workings of the TRC and the process of  granting amnesty. 
  • Any other relevant answer. (any 2 x 2) (4)

2.5  2.5.1 Extraction of evidence from Source 2D – L1] 

  • The Mxenge family opposed the amnesty application. (1 x 2) (2) 

2.5.2 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 2D – L2] 

  • The family of Griffiths Mxenge felt that the granting of amnesty was a travesty of justice.
  • They felt that Coetzee and his co-accused did not meet the criteria for amnesty as contained in the  Promotion of National Reconciliation Act. 
  • As policemen they stepped into the arena of politics which was not within their jurisdiction of  maintaining justice, the protection of citizens and the duties of policemen. (2 x 2) (4) 

2.6  2.6.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 2E – L1]  

  • Mamdani views the manner in which the TRC dealt with apartheid as if ‘it did not exist’ and it did not  take the sufferings of the victims seriously. (1 x 2) (2) 

2.6.2 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 2E – L2] 

  •  Mamdani suggests that the TRC could have informed white South Africans that many of them were  beneficiaries of the apartheid system.
  • The focus could also have been on those who suffered because of apartheid and not only on those  who broke the law. (any 1 x 2) (2) 

2.6.3 [ Interpretation of evidence from Source 2E – L2] 

  • The TRC was intent on exposing who gave the orders for political crimes. 
  • It required them to be transparent. The TRC wished to extract the truth by saying ‘Did you give the  orders in this case, that case?’
  • Any other relevant answer. (any 2 x 2) (4) 

2.7 [Interpret, analyse and evaluate information from Sources 2A-D - L3] 

Learners need to include the following points in their answer: 

  • The success of the TRC contributed to healing the past, and building a united SA.
  • It acknowledged the pain, humiliation and suffering of people, allowed for amnesty for families who  had suffered trauma, they forgave perpetrators, provided stability for SA. 
  • Reparation provided R30 000 for victims, listened to stories of how police activists had killed others. 
  • Acknowledged mistakes that were made which were never to be repeated, led to the birth of a culture  of human rights, violence was not to be tolerated.
  • In 2006, Adrian Vlok asked for forgiveness and repented by washing the feet of Frank Chikane and  the feet of the mothers and widows of the Mamelodi 10.
  • In some cases the acceptance of unconditional apologies had improved relationships between the  perpetrators and the victims. 
  • Some families of victims (e.g. Mxenge, Goniwe, Hani) refused to accept the TRC process of amnesty  and wanted the perpetrators to be tried in a criminal court.
  • Mamdani felt that the TRC did not go far enough – it was only interested in those who had committed  gross human rights violations but not in those who had benefitted from apartheid. Any other relevant point. 

Use the following rubric to allocate a mark:  

QUESTION 3  WHAT IMPACT DID GLOBALISATION HAVE ON THE NEW WORLD ORDER?  3.1   3.1.1 [Definition of concept from Source 3A – L1] 

  • Globalisation refers to the integration of various economic, social, technological, political and cultural  structures and processes that allow for the economic and political relations between the different  countries of the world. 
  • These are influenced by the development in communication, transportation and infrastructure. Any other relevant response. (1 x 2) (2) 

3.1.2 [Extraction of evidence from Source 3A – L1] 

  • Negative integration  
  • Positive integration (2 x 1) (2) 

3.1.3 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 3A – L2] 

  • Removing tariff protection which allowed cheap imports from outside Africa to flood the market. 
  •  Cheap imports may result in the loss of jobs in industries located in African countries.  Any other relevant answer. (2 x 2) (4) 

3.2   3.2.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 3A – L1] 

  • Shrinking world 
  • Technology 
  • Free trade 
  • Any other relevant answer. (any 3 x 1) (3)

3.2.2 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 3B – L2]  

  • Shrinking world – negative e.g. an investment in Indonesia can mean unemployment in London; or  positive e.g. Internet allows for rapid communication across the world. 
  • Technology – positive e.g. a change in how the world communicates, learns, does business and treats  illness; or negative e.g. countries without access to technology are poorer and unable to compete (the  digital divide). 
  • Free trade - negative e.g. national governments are unable to protect their own industries and workers’  jobs are lost due to cheap imports; positive e.g. consumers benefit from being able to buy cheaper  imported goods such as clothing made in the Far East.  
  • Any other relevant answer. (any 3 x 2) (6)

3.3.   3.3.1 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 3C – L2] 

  • They believed it would be positive (1 x 2) (2) 

3.3.2 [ Extraction of evidence from Source 3C – L1] 

  • Benefits (economic and non-economic areas). 
  • In low GDP countries citizens believed that they benefitted from free trade and globalisation.  (2 x 1) (2) 

3.3.3 [Ascertain the limitations of Source 3C – L3] 

  • The survey was limited to 25 000 citizens in 25 countries. 
  • It may not have included countries negatively affected by globalisation. 
  • Supporters of globalisation were mainly from Europe and North America. 
  • Any other relevant answer. (any 1 x 3) (3)

3.4  3.4.1 Extraction of evidence from Source 3D – L1] 

  • Loss of jobs in developed nations 
  • Increase in child labour and slavery 
  • High pollution levels 
  • Negative impact of fast food on people’s health 
  • Unequal distribution of wealth 
  • Any other relevant answer. (any 4 x 1) (4) 

3.4.2 [Interpretation of Source 3D – L2] 

  • Loss of jobs in developed nations – outsourcing of manufacturing to ‘third-world’ countries.
  • Increase in child labour and slavery – many countries lack adequate accountability. 
  • High pollution levels – new industrial development. 
  • Negative impact of fast food on health – spread of global food chains. 
  • Unequal distribution of wealth – corporate greed and corrupt governments. 

3.5 [Ascertain the usefulness of Sources 3C and 3D – L3]  

  • Source 3C provides valuable information on slavery, the bribing of officials to force children to work and on  how people felt about globalisation. 
  • Source 3D provides evidence of the negative effects of globalisation. 
  • Read together, Sources 3C and 3D provide multiple perspectives on globalisation. (any 2 x 2) (4)

3.6   3.6.1 [Extraction of evidence from Source 3E – L1] 

  • Global injustice  
  • March against World Trade Organisation (WTO) (2 x 1) (2) 

3.6.2 [Interpretation of evidence from Source 3E – L2] 

  • Presumably the people in Greece, Ireland, and Spain would disagree, as would mainly African  American workers in Detroit and other US cities who had lost jobs to people living in Taiwan, etc. 
  • The demonstrators believed that the policies of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) caused increased  injustice across the world. (1 x 2) (2) 

3.7 [Compare evidence from Sources 3D and 3E – L2] 

  • Source 3E highlights global injustices as mentioned in 3D  
  • Source 3D gives clear examples of the injustice which is mentioned in the source; e.g. Source 3D  explains how under-developed countries have been exploited, suffered injustice, e.g. low labour  costs, child labour, slavery, terrorism, criminals, increase in industrial waste, pollution, negative health  issues, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer, corporates continue to exploit the poor, emergence  of corrupt governments. (2 x 2) (4) 

3.8 [Interpret, analyse and evaluate information from Sources 3A-E - L3]  Learners need to include the following points in their response: 

  • Globalisation creating a new order 
  • Technology increasing 
  • Transport, computer, telecom industries progressing very fast, making it difficult and challenging to  keep up 
  • Communication has grown exponentially e.g. global accessibility of cellphones
  • Internet access is essential in business, schools, homes, offices, information and capital being traded
  • Changes in monetary policies 
  • Global issues combating international terrorism, HIV/AIDS, challenges to globalisation
  • Travel has become easier and more affordable - enhancing communication 
  • Any other relevant response.

ESSAY QUESTIONS   QUESTION 1A: CHINA  Discuss to what extent Mao transformed China from an underdeveloped country to a super power from 1949 to  1976.  SYNOPSIS  National strength and the status of nations are measured in economic capacity and military hardware – those  countries with the greatest amount of both are considered to be ‘super powers’. Candidates should, therefore,  determine to what extent Mao succeeded in developing these two areas between 1949 and 1976. Clear examples  must be used to substantiate their argument.  MAIN ASPECTS  Candidates should include the following aspects in their response: 

  • Introduction: Candidates should outline very briefly the main line of argument – in this case making a  statement expressing the extent to which Mao had transformed China from an underdeveloped country to a  superpower by 1976. 

ELABORATION  Land Reform 1949–1976 

  • The majority of China’s population in 1949 were landless peasants. 
  • 1949: Land Reform Law – land was taken from landowners and redistributed to peasants. Every peasant  now owned a very small plot - just enough to live on but not enough to produce a surplus. 
  • 1952–1956: Peasant land was re-grouped into collectives (by 1956 95% of peasants were in collectives) –  this allowed for mechanisation, modern farming methods and greater production. 
  • From 1958: Collectives joined into larger units called communes. The aim was that communes would be self sufficient: able to control their own education, health, welfare service and have a small industry. Communes  were part of Mao’s ‘Great Leap Forward - an attempt to develop China into a modern industrialised country.  (Initial bad weather and poor harvests resulted in widespread famine.) 
  • (NB: After Mao’s death peasants were allowed to own their land again and grow crops for profit. As a result  of this ‘responsibility system’ as it was called, China has seen far greater increases in grain harvests.) 
  • Grain produced in China increased (million tonnes) – 1949: 111; 1957: 191; 1976: 285; 1984: 407.

The economic and industrial development 1949–1976 

  • China had very little industry in 1949 (cheap manufactured goods from Europe and Japan in the early 20th century had economically ruined Chinese craftsmen).  
  • From 1952 industrial development was centrally planned with a target fixed (followed USSR’s model). 
  • Plan 1: 1952–1957 – Industrial development exceeded targets. 
  • Plan 2: 1957–1960 – ‘Great Leap Forward’. Popular slogan in those years was ‘20 years in a day’. Over ambitious, poorly managed, harvest failures resulted in famine in which millions died – GLF abandoned 
  • Plan 3: 1960–1966 – No plans agreed upon – chaos in countryside due to Cultural Revolution as traditional  methods of farming were attacked as ‘backwards’ and untrained workers sent from the cities to work in the  fields 
  • Plan 4: 1971–1976 – this was a period of rapid industrial growth  
  • GNP grew on average 13% per year between 1949–1975 (but very unevenly: 1949=57 + c.22% but 1960s  = 7%) 

Foreign policy 

  • Mao wanted to re-establish the borders of the ‘Old China’ (this led to border wars with a number of  neighbouring countries) and make sure that China was never threatened by any foreign power. 
  • Tibet 1949: Tibet was an independent priest-led country which Mao saw as part of ‘Old China’. In 1950 the  Chinese Red Army entered Tibet – land redistributed, attacks on Buddhism, monasteries destroyed. In 1965  Tibet became a full province of China. Tibet is still fighting for independence today. 
  • Other examples such as India, Vietnam or Taiwan could be used to illustrate Mao’s foreign policy which  aimed at showing the world that China under communist rule was no longer a weak and insignificant power. 

Military power 

  • Until 1960 China received a great deal of assistance from the USSR. After the Sino-Soviet split, China  adopted a policy of self-reliance. 
  • China developed nuclear power.  
  • Any other relevant point. 
  • Conclusion: Candidates should sum up their argument with a relevant conclusion.  [50]

 QUESTION 1B: VIETNAM ‘... All the military might of a superpower could not defeat a small nation of peasants.’ Critically discuss this statement in the light of United States of America’s involvement in Vietnam between 1965 and 1975. Use relevant examples to support your answer. SYNOPSIS Candidates must critically discuss the various reasons why the USA failed to win the war against Vietnam despite their superior military might. Clear examples must be used to substantiate their argument. MAIN ASPECTS Candidates should include the following aspects in their response:

  • Introduction : Candidates should outline very briefly the main line of argument – in this case the main reasonswhy the USA failed to win the war against Vietnam.

ELABORATION USA’s military tactics

  • The US was ill-equipped and trained to fight a guerrilla war in Vietnam. They lost out to the more experienced Viet Cong who knew the jungles and had the support of local people
  • The US used ‘search and destroy’ tactics, destroying whole villages of Vietnamese civilians but failing to destroy the Viet Cong
  • The US used aerial bombing and chemical weapons to deforest the jungle and napalm to intimidate and destroy the Vietnamese people.
  • These tactics lost the USA a great deal of support among Vietnamese people (North and South) but also fuelled the anti-war feeling back in the US.

Opposition to war in USA

  • A growing number of people (especially young students on USA campuses) opposed USA involvement in Vietnam.
  • Rallies, demonstrations and marches were held across the USA (4 students killed by state troops at Ohio State University, 1971) - many young people did not want to be conscripted to fight a war they did not believe in (ideologically they did not agree with the USA’s policy of containment).
  • Due to the media coverage (Vietnam was the 1st televised war), many Americans were opposed to the destruction of villages and the murder of civilians that took place in the name of ‘democracy’.
  • The anti-war movement undermined support for the USA government to such an extent that President Johnson did not stand for re-election – Richard Nixon stood for election promising to end the USA’s involvement in the war.

Chinese and USSR support of Viet Cong

  • Although the Viet Cong did not have the chemical weapons and sophisticated weapons that were used by the USA, they did receive weapons, aid and support from the USSR and China.
  • Support from China and the USSR made it very hard for USA troops to disarm the guerrillas.

Unpopularity of South Vietnamese regime

  • The USA tried to prop up an unpopular regime that many of the South Vietnamese people (whom the USA was supposed to be ‘liberating’ from the communists) did not support.
  • The South Vietnamese government was essentially a military dictatorship and the ruling elite were hated by the majority of the peasant class.

Determination and skill of Viet Cong compared with US conscripts.

  • The Viet Cong were highly disciplined and dedicated guerrilla soldiers fighting to free their country (Vietnamese saw it as a war of liberation).
  • They also had the support of the majority of the Vietnamese people.
  • In contrast, the US army was made up mainly of very young, conscripted soldiers.
  •  Any other relevant point.
  • Conclusion: Candidates should sum up their argument with a relevant conclusion.[50]

QUESTION 2: CONGO AND TANZANIA Write a comparative essay on the political successes and challenges that post-colonial leaders of both the Congo and Tanzania faced between the 1960s and the 1980s. SYNOPSIS Candidates should undertake a comparative discussion of the political successes and challenges that faced the Congo and Tanzania. MAIN ASPECTS Candidates should include the following aspects in their response:

  • Introduction: Candidates should focus on the nature of the post-colonial leaders in both the Congo and Tanzania by undertaking a comparative discussion.

ELABORATION Leadership in the Congo:

  • Patrice Lumumba (Prime Minister 1950–1961). An anti-colonial liberation leader and a nationalist. Some historians have argued that he lacked diplomatic experience (e.g. in his handling of the Katanga secession) and that he acted without judgment; while others saw him as charismatic, uncompromising and having a strong set of values for which, ultimately, he was killed.
  • Mobutu Sese Seko (President 1965–1997) A colonel in the army; a capitalist who was supported by the USA, an Africanist (changed name from Congo to Zaire and demanded people use their African names, Western clothes were banned), he was an elitist and established a kleptocracy (rule by a very few); a ruthless and authoritarian leader who used violent methods to silence all opposition.

Leadership in Tanzania:

  • Julius Nyerere (President 1961–1985) One of the few African leaders to voluntarily retire, known for his personal integrity. He was opposed to elitism and extravagance, a socialist, a dictator (banned all opposition parties); he used the 1962 Preventive Detention Act to imprison those who opposed him; committed to economic as well as political independence (although Tanzania came to depend heavily on foreign aid due to the failure of his policies).

Legacy of Colonialism

  • Congo : Colonised by King Leopold II of Belgium; colonial regime exploited people, stripped Congo of its rich natural resources and was known for its brutality (slavery existed in Belgian Congo into the 20th century), colonial powers did not develop an infrastructure, they did not provide health facilities or education for the local population (at independence only 2% of the population attended high school), local industry was not developed, no local people were involved in government during the colonial period; political parties where allowed from 1955, but were formed on an ethnic basis. This resulted in ethnic rivalry (e.g. attempt by the mineral-rich region, Katanga, to secede which was supported by USA).
  • Tanzania : Colonised by Germany, Britain took control after World War I. Nyerere emphasised the importance of unifying the nation and developing a Tanzanian identity – he made Kiswahili the official language. Britain did not develop secondary industries, Tanzania was exploited for natural resources and cash crops, infrastructure built for export of raw materials. Britain allowed Tanzanians some participation in local government structures, but they were not allowed to form political parties.

Types of government

  • Congo: Military dictatorship, kleptocracy, capitalist (private ownership of wealth created great divisions between rich and poor); one-party state; Mobutu had all power within the party and membership was compulsory for all citizens; the party was devoted to the cult of Mobutuism; supported by USA; encouraged foreign capitalists to invest in Zaire. 
  • Tanzania: African socialist (all land and industry was nationalised), one-party state (although membership of TANU was voluntary and open to people of all languages, ethnicities and regions). Attempted to remain non-aligned in Cold War; initially did not allow foreign investment but was forced to accept privatisation and foreign investment in return for loans and debt relief from IMF and World Bank.

Political stability and instability

  • Congo : Relatively stable after Mobutu came to power in a military coup d’état but mainly because all opposition was banned, silenced and executed;
  • Tanzania : Relatively stable with Nyerere remaining leader until mid-1980s; fought a war against Uganda over border dispute.
  • Any other relevant point.

QUESTION: 4: THE CRISIS OF APARTHEID IN THE 1980S Explain how both internal mass civic resistance and international pressure contributed to the demise of PW Botha’s apartheid regime in the 1980s. SYNOPSIS Candidates need to explain how both internal mass civic resistance and international pressure contributed to the demise of PW Botha’s regime in the 1980s. Relevant examples must be used to support their argument. MAIN ASPECTS Candidates should include the following aspects in their response:

  • Introduction: Candidates should focus on the reasons for internal mass civic resistance and international pressure against the apartheid regime in the 1980s.


  • Botha’s regime embarked on repression and later undertook ‘reform’ (1983 constitution).
  • ‘Reform’ measures by Botha’s regime in the form of the tri-cameral parliamentary system led to intense internal resistance by civic organisations.
  • Internal resistance in the form of ‘rolling’ mass action/programme of defiance led by the UDF, the National Forum, the Black Consciousness Movement, AZAPO, community/ religious organisations, student organisations in schools/universities, End-Conscription Campaign, Black Sash, etc.
  • The imposition of the states of emergency by Botha’s regime (reasons and reaction).
  • The emergence and role of the Mass Democratic Movement in 1985 against Botha’s regime.
  • International pressure by the anti-apartheid movement in Africa, Britain and Ireland.
  • Impact of the sports/cultural/academic/consumer boycotts; sanctions and disinvestment by the international community on the apartheid state’s economy.
  • Conclusion: Candidates should sum up their argument with a relevant conclusion. [50]

QUESTION 5: THE NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT AND THE GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY Allister Sparks argues that the process of negotiation ‘was always a crisis-driven process’. Critically assess Allister Sparks’ statement with reference to the process of negotiation in South Africa between 1990 and 1994. SYNOPSIS Candidates should indicate whether they agree with Sparks’ statement. They should highlight the various challenges that South Africa’s political role players faced during the process of negotiation such as violence, opposing views and political intolerance between 1990 and 1994. MAIN ASPECTS Candidates should include the following aspects in their response:

Introduction: Candidates should explain the historical context and take a line of argument with regard to the statement that ‘the process of negotiation was always a crisis-driven process’.

  • In March 1990, the ANC Executive met the NP government for ‘talks about talks’. (Meeting suspended due to the Sebokeng Massacre on 26 March 1990; the ANC threatened the continuation of the armed struggle if government did not commit to the process of negotiation; Government wanted ANC to commit to power-sharing and not majority rule).
  • May 1990: ANC and government met at Groote Schuur/Groote Schuur Minute accepted.
  • Third meeting in Pretoria (Pretoria Minute accepted; ANC suspended armed struggle; violence continued despite progress in talks; Third Force was blamed for the increase in violence).
  •  ANC tried to befriend Zulu king to create political stability and peace in Natal; (IFP resisted and violence increased for e.g. ‘Seven Day’ War during March 1991. Two hundred people were killed in Pietermaritzburg.
  • Violence spread to Johannesburg (train violence claimed at least 500 lives between 1990 and 1993;Inkathagate Scandal came to the fore; ANC made 14demands to government as a prerequisite for continuednegotiations).
  • 20 December 1991 CODESA began – boycotted by the PAC, AZAPO and the Conservative Party; Declaration of Intent signed/South Africa on threshold of democracy.
  •  CODESA 2 began in May 1992 but ANC walked out because of the Boipatong massacre in June 1992.
  • October 1992 Joe Slovo proposed the ‘Sunset Clause’ as a compromise - NP government and ANC later signed the ‘Record of Understanding’; IFP rejected this agreement.
  •  7 September 1992 almost 80 000 ANC supporters marched to Bhisho and demanded the reincorporation of Ciskei into South Africa. Soldiers from Bantustan leader Oupa Gqozo. Government opened fire on unarmed protestors leading to the death of 28; the tri-partite alliance responded by embarking on ‘rolling mass action’.
  • Violence erupted again. Third Force implicated; Goldstone Commission confirmed the involvement of police/SADF.
  • Assassination of Chris Hani on 10 April 1993 was an attempt by the right-wing to derail the process of negotiation.
  • AWB invaded the World Trade Centre to stop negotiations – 25 July 1993.
  •  APLA launched an attack on the St James Church in Cape Town – 25 July 1993 killing 11 and wounding 58 worshippers.
  • IFP and COSAG rejected ‘Record of Understanding’ and favoured federalism while the AWB and CP wanted a volkstaat.
  • Lucas Mangope, Bantustan leader of Bophuthatswana, called on the AWB to resist reintegration into SA – led to 63 AWB members being killed.
  • 28 March 1994 members of the IFP marched to the ANC headquarters at Shell House – resulted in the Shell House massacre about 300 people were killed.
  • Multi-party talks resumed in April 1993.
  • South Africa’s first democratic elections held on 27 April 1994.
  • Conclusion: Candidates should sum up their argument with a relevant conclusion. [50]


  9. BIBLIOGRAPHY Visual sources and other historical evidence were taken from the following:

BOOKS: Angier, K. (et al), Viva History Grade 12: Learner’s Book. (Johannesburg: Vivlia, 2013). Frederikse, J. South Africa: A different kind of war. (London: James Currey, 1987). Hanlon, J. Beggar your neighbours: Apartheid power in Southern Africa. (London: James Currey, 1986). Pillay, G. (et al), New Generation History Grade 12: Learner’s book. (Durban: Interpak Printers, 2013). INTERNET SITES: http://www.cartoons.ac.uk/search/cartoon_item/angola. http://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/interview-south-african-prime-minister-mr-b-j-vorster-mr-clarence-rhodesupitn- tv-13-february. http://qu301southafrica.com/tag/recon. www.justice.gov.za/trc/report/ . www.info.gov.za/speeches/1997/08050w13297.html. www.justice.gov.za/trc/media/1996/9611/s961105h.html. http://hubpages.com/hub/Definition-of-Globalization. http://globalisation.pen.io. www.globescan.com/news_archives/press_inside.htm. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/negative-effects-of-globalization.html. http://content.lib.washington.edu/wtoweb/images/wto-protest.jpg.

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In historians' Presidents Day survey, Biden vs. Trump is not a close call

Bill Chappell

history assignment term 2

President Biden is rated highly in a survey of historians on presidential greatness — but he's in a tight election race with former President Donald Trump, who is ranked last. Jim Watson and Brendan Smialowski/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

President Biden is rated highly in a survey of historians on presidential greatness — but he's in a tight election race with former President Donald Trump, who is ranked last.

President Biden is in a tight race to keep former President Donald Trump from reclaiming the White House, recent polls show . But that's not how 154 historians and presidential experts see it: They rate Biden in the top third of U.S. presidents, while Trump ranks dead last.

The 2024 edition of the Presidential Greatness Project Expert Survey has Biden in 14th place, just ahead of Woodrow Wilson and Ronald Reagan. Trump comes in 45th, behind fellow impeachee Andrew Johnson and James Buchanan, the perennial cellar-dweller in such ratings due to his pre-Civil War leadership.

"While partisanship and ideology don't tend to make a major difference overall, there are a few distinctions worth noting," said political scientists Brandon Rottinghaus of the University of Houston and Justin S. Vaughn of Coastal Carolina University, who first published their greatness survey in 2015 .

Experts responding to the survey who self-identified as conservatives rated Biden No. 30, while liberals put him 13th and moderates ranked him 20th. All three of those same groups ranked Trump, whose presidency was marked by his flouting of historical norms, in the bottom five.

Trump ordered to pay over $355M for fraudulent business practices in New York

Trump ordered to pay over $355M for fraudulent business practices in New York

On the survey's 0-100 scale of "overall greatness," a rating of 50 means a president was average, while zero means a president is considered a failure. Only the top three presidents — Abraham Lincoln at No. 1, followed by Franklin D. Roosevelt and then George Washington — scored above 90. The drop-off was sharp from there, with no one else above an 80 rating. Roughly half the presidents were rated below 50.

Trump's overall rating was 10.92, easily the worst showing, while Biden's 62.66 had him tied with John Adams. Some of Biden's appeal could be due to the person he followed in the Oval Office: Trump was seen as "by far the most polarizing of the ranked presidents, selected by 170 respondents," according to a summary of the survey.

The survey emerges as these two contenders for the 2024 presidential race are running against distinctly different headwinds. While historians might prefer Biden, polls show a lack of confidence in his handling of key policy areas, and he is routinely criticized over his age. And Trump appears to be romping his way to another Republican nomination to lead the U.S. despite facing 91 felony criminal counts and lingering disapproval over his one-term presidency.

In a sign of partisan divide, the academics wrote, "Republicans and Conservatives rank George Washington as the greatest president," while Democrats, moderates and independents slotted the nation's founding president in second or third place.

"There are also several presidents where partisan polarization is evident — Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Obama, and Biden — but interestingly not for Bill Clinton," the survey's authors said.

In fact, Clinton fared a bit better among right-leaning respondents, who put him at No. 10, than among liberals and moderates, both of whom had Clinton as the 12th-best president.

Here's what matters to voters — and what could change their minds if it's Biden-Trump

Here's what matters to voters — and what could change their minds if it's Biden-Trump

Measuring presidential greatness is, of course, both subjective and selective. Historians routinely reanalyze leaders' successes and failures — and in today's polarized political climate, those qualities can look very different, depending on whom you ask. It can also be difficult to extract distinct criteria for presidential greatness, other than helming the United States during critical moments in history — such as helping found the country or keeping the nation together.

For instance, the survey's greatest leader, Lincoln, is praised for preserving the Union and ending slavery. But Washington, who fell from second to third place in the new survey, was a practitioner of that abomination. Even Roosevelt, credited with both enacting New Deal policies that reshaped the country and leading the U.S. through the bulk of a world war, is also criticized for ordering the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II.

The survey's goal is to give historians and experts on the presidency a chance to state their opinion of where today's leaders stand in a broader context. To do so, Rottinghaus and Vaughn sent requests to current and recent members of the Presidents and Executive Politics section of the American Political Science Association .

  • Donald Trump
  • Abraham Lincoln


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