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Essentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers. Second Edition 2nd Edition
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- ISBN-10 0071345442
- ISBN-13 978-0071345446
- Edition 2nd
- Publisher McGraw Hill / Medical
- Publication date October 21, 1999
- Language English
- Dimensions 8.5 x 0.9 x 10.8 inches
- Print length 440 pages
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Sci-Hub blocked in Russia following ruling by Moscow court
By Dalmeet Singh Chawla 2018-12-03T09:30:00+00:00
Sci-Hub, the popular pirate site that bypasses paywalls to illicitly host millions of pay-to-read scientific papers, is being blocked in Russia after a court in the country ruled against the site.
Last month, the Moscow City Court ruled that Sci-Hub should be blocked in the country following complaints from the academic publishers Elsevier and Springer Nature, who alleged intellectual property infringement. As a result, Russia’s state media regulator Roskomnadzor (RKN) has blocked Sci-Hub and related mirror sites. It is believed that Alexandra Elbakyan, who founded Sci-Hub in 2011, operates the site out of Russia. Elbakyan did not respond to a request for comment.
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Last November, a Virginia district court ruled that internet service providers and search engines must block Sci-Hub and that the site should pay the American Chemical Society (ACS) – which was alleging copyright infringement, trademark counterfeiting and trademark infringement – $4.8 million (£3.7 million) in damages. Although some Sci-Hub domains disappeared following this ruling, the site quickly switched to new domains.
Sci-Hub had already previously been ordered to pay publishing giant Elsevier $15 million by a US court last June. Elbakyan has, however, told the media that she plans to ignore the lawsuits.
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Summary of Guidelines for Word Choice
Words in scientific research papers should be
Use few if any abbreviations.
Exercise 1.1: Principles of Word Choice
Words in scientific research papers should be PRECISE .
(Strunk and White, II. 16, p. 21: Use definite, specific, concrete language.)
Your words should be as precise as your science.
Note that precise, definite, specific, concrete words evoke a mental image. For example, "dog" evokes much more of a mental image than "animal" does. Similarly, "pattern of discharge" evokes much more of a mental image than "response characteristics" does. Words that evoke mental images help make writing easy to read. Abstractions (such as "animal" and "characteristics") make reading difficult.
greatly decreased; reduced by 80%.
POINT : "Compromised" is imprecise: what happened to renal blood flow? ("Compromise" means "place at risk." A person's chances of survival can be compromised. But blood flow is measurable, so it increases or decreases.) "Drastically" is also imprecise. Science is quantitative; thus, a quantitative detail such as "by 80%" is clearer than a qualitative term such as "greatly."
POINT : "Several" is imprecise. How long is several hours? State the mean or a range.
POINT : A change could be either an increase or a decrease. From the first sentence we cannot tell whether the author meant increase or decrease. But from "further increase" in the next sentence we can see that the change in the first sentence must have been an increase. It is clearest to write "increase," not "change," in the first sentence.
incubated in, grown in, bathed in.
POINT : "Exposed to" is imprecise. How were the cells exposed? Use a precise term. "Put in" does not work here because the cells probably were not added for 48 h.
POINT : Keep the name of the animal in the reader's mind.
POINT : "To rescue" means to free from death or destruction. An appropriate use of "rescue" is to say that the phenotype is rescued (from death or destruction) by some event in the genotype. In Example 6, an intervention prevents a process (it does not rescue the process). In Example 7, one substance offsets the lack of another substance (it does not rescue the lack of another substance). "Rescue" is an example of a "buzz word," that is, a word that is in fashion. Using a buzz word shows that you belong to the club. It is reasonable to use current terminology, including buzz words, but the problem with buzz words is that they are often imprecise. So use buzz words only in their precise meaning.
prevented, inhibited, repressed.
POINT : "Negatively regulated" is a vague way of expressing a concept that can be conveyed precisely by a variety of verbs.
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