PHP: How to access properties and methods of an object

Understanding how to interact with objects is fundamental in object-oriented programming. In PHP, accessing properties and methods of an object is straightforward and allows for encapsulated, organized code. This tutorial will guide you through the principles and practices with in-depth examples.

Introduction to PHP Objects

Objects in PHP are instances of classes, which can contain properties (attributes) and methods (functions). To create an object, you need to define a class and use the new keyword. Here’s a basic example:

To access the properties and methods of this Car object, you use the ‘->’ (arrow) operator:

Accessing Public Properties and Methods

Public properties and methods are the most accessible members of an object, as they can be accessed anywhere:

Handling Private and Protected Members

Not all properties and methods are publicly accessible. private and protected members have restricted access, and PHP provides ways to work with these encapsulated elements:

Such methods are commonly referred to as getters and setters .

Navigating Inheritance and Overriding Methods

Inheritance is a core concept in object-oriented programming. Let’s see how a derived class can access and override methods from a base class:

Understanding Magic Methods

Magic methods, such as __get() and __set() , can be used for property overloading where properties don’t actually exist. Let’s see how they are implemented:

Accessing Static Properties and Methods

Static members belong to the class rather than an instance of the class. Here’s how you access static properties and methods:

Working with Interfaces and Abstract Classes

PHP also supports interfaces and abstract classes for defining contracts for other classes. Members of interfaces and abstract classes can be accessed like any other class, provided the concrete class implements all abstract methods:

Using Objects as Types

Type hinting allows you to specify that a function expects an object of a certain type as an argument or return:

Object Iteration with Iterators

PHP provides the Iterator interface for stepping through custom object properties during a loop. Here’s a glimpse into how you might implement iteration in an object:

This tutorial has explored different ways to access and interact with objects in PHP. From essential object manipulation, managing encapsulation through visibility, to advanced topics like inheritance, magic methods, and interfaces, you’re now more equipped to write flexible and robust PHP code.

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PHP Tutorial

Php advanced, mysql database, php examples, php reference, php oop - static properties, php - static properties.

Static properties can be called directly - without creating an instance of a class.

Static properties are declared with the static keyword:

To access a static property use the class name, double colon (::), and the property name:

Let's look at an example:

Example Explained

Here, we declare a static property: $value. Then, we echo the value of the static property by using the class name, double colon (::), and the property name (without creating a class first).

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PHP - More on Static Properties

A class can have both static and non-static properties. A static property can be accessed from a method in the same class using the self keyword and double colon (::):

To call a static property from a child class, use the parent keyword inside the child class:

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Setting and Getting Property Values

The following examples assume $company is the root of a tree of data objects created from the schema and instance document shown above.

Exemplo #1 Access via property name

Data object properties can be accessed using the object property access syntax. The following sets the company name to 'Acme'.

Exemplo #2 Access via property name as array index

We can also access properties using associative array syntax. The simplest form of this uses the property name as the array index. For example, the following sets the company name and gets the employeeOfTheMonth.

Exemplo #3 Data Object iteration

We can iterate over the properties of a data object using foreach . The following iterates over the properties of the employee of the month.

which will output:

The 'manager' property is not output, because it has not been set.

Exemplo #4 Access many-valued property by name

Many-valued data object properties can also be accessed using the object property name syntax. The following gets the list of departments.

Exemplo #5 Many-valued element access

We can access individual elements of many-valued properties using array syntax. The following accesses the first department in the company.

Exemplo #6 Many-valued property iteration

Many-valued properties can also be iterated over using foreach . The following iterates over the company's departments.

Each iteration will assign the next department in the list to the variable $department .

Exemplo #7 Chained property access

We can chain property references on a single line. The following sets and gets the name of the first department.

Using the associative array syntax, this is equivalent to

In either case, the dept_name variable is set to 'Emerging Technologies'.

Exemplo #8 XPath navigation

The associative array index can be an XPath-like expression. Valid expressions are defined by an augmented sub-set of XPath.

Two forms of indexing into many-valued properties are supported. The first is the standard XPath array syntax with the indexing starting at one, the second is an SDO extension to XPath with an index starting at zero. The standard syntax is:

and the SDO XPath extension syntax is:

Both these examples get the second employee from the first department.

Exemplo #9 XPath querying

We can use XPath to query and identify parts of a data object based on instance data. The following retrieves the manager from the 'Advanced Technologies' department.

Exemplo #10 Creating child data objects

A data object can be a factory for its child data objects. A child data object is automatically part of the data graph. The following add a new employee to the 'Advanced Technologies' department.

Exemplo #11 Unset a primitive property

We can use the isset() and unset() functions to test and remove items from the data object.

The following clears the name of the first department.

Exemplo #12 Unset a data object

unset can also be used to remove a data object from the tree. The following example shows John Jones leaving the company.

Exemplo #13 Unset a referenced data object

The following removes the 'employeeOfTheMonth' from the company. If this were a containment relationship then the employee would be removed from the company (probably not a good idea to sack your best employee each month!), but since this is a non-containment reference, the employee being referenced will remain in the department in the company, but will no longer be accessible via the employeeOfTheMonth property.

Exemplo #14 Access via property index

Data object properties can be accessed via their property index using array syntax. The property index is the position at which the property's definition appears in the model (in this case the xml schema). We can see from the schema listing above that the company name attribute is the second company property (the SDO interface makes no distinction between XML attributes and elements). The following sets the company name to 'Acme', with the same result as Access via property name

Using the index directly in this way is likely to be fragile. Normally the property name syntax should be preferred, but the property index may be required in special cases.

User Contributed Notes 2 notes

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PHP 8: Constructor property promotion

Personally, I use value objects and data transfer objects all the time in my projects. I even wrote a dedicated post on how to treat data in our code a while back.

Naturally, I'm very happy with the constructor property promotion RFC, it's passed and will be added in PHP 8 . You see, this feature reduces a lot of boilerplate code when constructing simple objects such as VOs and DTOs.

In short: property promotion allows you to combine class fields, constructor definition and variable assignments all into one syntax, in the construct parameter list.

So instead of doing this:

You would write this:

Let's look at how it works!

# How it works

The basic idea is simple: ditch all the class properties and the variable assignments, and prefix the constructor parameters with public , protected or private . PHP will take that new syntax, and transform it to normal syntax under the hood, before actually executing the code.

So it goes from this:

And only executes it afterwards.

Note by the way that the default value is not set on the class property, but on the method argument in the constructor.

# Promoted property properties

So let's look at what promoted properties can and can't do, there's quite a lot of little intricacies worth mentioning!

# Only in constructors

Promoted properties can only be used in constructors. That might seem obvious but I thought it was worth mentioning this, just to be clear.

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# No duplicates allowed

You're not able to declare a class property and a promoted property with the same name. That's also rather logical, since the promoted property is simply transpiled to a class property at runtime.

# Untyped properties are allowed

You're allowed to promote untyped properties, though I'd argue that these days with modern PHP , you're better off typing everything.

# Simple defaults

Promoted properties can have default values, but expressions like new … are not allowed.

# Combining promoted- and normal properties

Not all constructor properties should be promoted, you can mix and match.

I'd say: be careful mixing the syntaxes, if it makes the code less clear, consider using a normal constructor instead.

# Access promoted properties from the constructor body

You're allowed to read the promoted properties in the constructor body. This can be useful if you want to do extra validation checks. You can use both the local variable and the instance variable, both work fine.

# Doc comments on promoted properties

You can add doc comments on promoted properties, and they are still available via reflection.

# Attributes

Just like doc blocks, attributes are allowed on promoted properties. When transpiled, they will be present both on the constructor parameter, as well as the class property.

Will be transpiled to:

# Not allowed in abstract constructors

I didn't even know abstract constructors were a thing, but here goes! Promoted properties are not allowed in them.

# Allowed in traits

On the other hand, they are allowed in traits. This makes sense, since the transpiled syntax is also valid in traits.

# var is not supported

Old, I mean, experienced PHP developers might have used var in a distant past to declare class variables. It's not allowed with constructor promotion. Only public , protected and private are valid keywords.

# Variadic parameters cannot be promoted

Since you can't convert to a type that's array of type , it's not possible to promote variadic parameters.

Still waiting for generics…

# Reflection for isPromoted

Both ReflectionProperty and ReflectionParameter have a new isPromoted method to check whether the class property or method parameter is promoted.

# Inheritance

Since PHP constructors don't need to follow the declaration of their parent constructor, there's little to be said: inheritance is allowed. If you need to pass properties from the child constructor to the parent constructor though, you'll need to manually pass them:

That's about it for property promotion! I for sure will use them, what about you? Let me know via Twitter or e-mail !

  • How to Create Array of Objects in PHP

Create an Array of Class’ Objects in PHP

Create an array of stdclass objects in php, create an array of object using the array() function in php.

How to Create Array of Objects in PHP

This article will introduce methods to create an array of objects in PHP.

We can use the array() function to create an array of objects in PHP. The function will take the object as the arguments and will create an array of those objects. We can create objects by creating a class and defining some properties of the class. The properties of the class will have some values. Finally, the properties and values will form a key-value pair in the array.

For example, create a class Motorcycle . Create two public properties, $name and $type . Then create an object $bike1 of the Motorcycle class using the new keyword. Populate the properties of the object with any suitable values. Similarly, create another object, $bike2 and populate the values accordingly. Next, create a variable $bike and write the array() function to it with the two objects $bike1 and $bike2 as the parameters. Finally, print the array variable $bikes with the print_r() function.

Thus, we can create an array of objects, as shown in the output section. We have created an array of the Motorcycle objects in the example below. We can see the indexes 0 and 1 for each Motorcycle object. The properties and values of each object are formed as a key-value pair, as stated above.

Example Code:

We can create an array of objects by creating an object of the stdClass in PHP. The stdClass is defined in the standard set of functions in PHP. It is not a base class of objects; rather, it is an empty class that can be used to typecast and set dynamic properties. We can create an object of the stdClass , which is an array by nature. Then, we can assign the dynamic properties to the object with the indexes.

For example, create an array $bikes[] and make it an object of the stdClass using the new keyword. Then, give the index 0 to the $bikes[] array and assign the properties name and type . Give some suitable values of your choice to the properties. Repeat the same process for index 1 in the $bikes[] array. Next, print the $bikes array.

The example below creates an array of stdClass objects, as shown in the output section below.

This method is quite similar to the first method. We can create an array of objects by creating objects from a class. Here, we will first create an array using the array() function and then populate the objects in the array. In the first method, we created objects and then populated them in the array using the array() function. We will use the array index to set the values to the properties.

For example, create a Motorcycle class with properties as in the first method. Then create an array with the $bikes variable using the array() function. Leave the array empty. Then, create an object of the class from the $bike array using the 0 index. Set the properties and values for the 0 index as well. Repeat the same process for the 1 index. Finally, print the array using the print_r() function.

Subodh Poudel avatar

Subodh is a proactive software engineer, specialized in fintech industry and a writer who loves to express his software development learnings and set of skills through blogs and articles.

Related Article - PHP Array

  • How to Determine the First and Last Iteration in a Foreach Loop in PHP
  • How to Convert an Array to a String in PHP
  • How to Get the First Element of an Array in PHP
  • How to Echo or Print an Array in PHP
  • How to Delete an Element From an Array in PHP
  • How to Remove Empty Array Elements in PHP

Related Article - PHP Object

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  • Language Reference
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Object Iteration

PHP provides a way for objects to be defined so it is possible to iterate through a list of items, with, for example a foreach statement. By default, all visible properties will be used for the iteration.

Example #1 Simple Object Iteration

The above example will output:

As the output shows, the foreach iterated through all of the visible properties that could be accessed.

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User Contributed Notes 19 notes

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assign object property php

Create a form in Word that users can complete or print

In Word, you can create a form that others can fill out and save or print.  To do this, you will start with baseline content in a document, potentially via a form template.  Then you can add content controls for elements such as check boxes, text boxes, date pickers, and drop-down lists. Optionally, these content controls can be linked to database information.  Following are the recommended action steps in sequence.  

Show the Developer tab

In Word, be sure you have the Developer tab displayed in the ribbon.  (See how here:  Show the developer tab .)

Open a template or a blank document on which to base the form

You can start with a template or just start from scratch with a blank document.

Start with a form template

Go to File > New .

In the  Search for online templates  field, type  Forms or the kind of form you want. Then press Enter .

In the displayed results, right-click any item, then select  Create. 

Start with a blank document 

Select Blank document .

Add content to the form

Go to the  Developer  tab Controls section where you can choose controls to add to your document or form. Hover over any icon therein to see what control type it represents. The various control types are described below. You can set properties on a control once it has been inserted.

To delete a content control, right-click it, then select Remove content control  in the pop-up menu. 

Note:  You can print a form that was created via content controls. However, the boxes around the content controls will not print.

Insert a text control

The rich text content control enables users to format text (e.g., bold, italic) and type multiple paragraphs. To limit these capabilities, use the plain text content control . 

Click or tap where you want to insert the control.

Rich text control button

To learn about setting specific properties on these controls, see Set or change properties for content controls .

Insert a picture control

A picture control is most often used for templates, but you can also add a picture control to a form.

Picture control button

Insert a building block control

Use a building block control  when you want users to choose a specific block of text. These are helpful when you need to add different boilerplate text depending on the document's specific purpose. You can create rich text content controls for each version of the boilerplate text, and then use a building block control as the container for the rich text content controls.

building block gallery control

Select Developer and content controls for the building block.

Developer tab showing content controls

Insert a combo box or a drop-down list

In a combo box, users can select from a list of choices that you provide or they can type in their own information. In a drop-down list, users can only select from the list of choices.

combo box button

Select the content control, and then select Properties .

To create a list of choices, select Add under Drop-Down List Properties .

Type a choice in Display Name , such as Yes , No , or Maybe .

Repeat this step until all of the choices are in the drop-down list.

Fill in any other properties that you want.

Note:  If you select the Contents cannot be edited check box, users won’t be able to click a choice.

Insert a date picker

Click or tap where you want to insert the date picker control.

Date picker button

Insert a check box

Click or tap where you want to insert the check box control.

Check box button

Use the legacy form controls

Legacy form controls are for compatibility with older versions of Word and consist of legacy form and Active X controls.

Click or tap where you want to insert a legacy control.

Legacy control button

Select the Legacy Form control or Active X Control that you want to include.

Set or change properties for content controls

Each content control has properties that you can set or change. For example, the Date Picker control offers options for the format you want to use to display the date.

Select the content control that you want to change.

Go to Developer > Properties .

Controls Properties  button

Change the properties that you want.

Add protection to a form

If you want to limit how much others can edit or format a form, use the Restrict Editing command:

Open the form that you want to lock or protect.

Select Developer > Restrict Editing .

Restrict editing button

After selecting restrictions, select Yes, Start Enforcing Protection .

Restrict editing panel

Advanced Tip:

If you want to protect only parts of the document, separate the document into sections and only protect the sections you want.

To do this, choose Select Sections in the Restrict Editing panel. For more info on sections, see Insert a section break .

Sections selector on Resrict sections panel

If the developer tab isn't displayed in the ribbon, see Show the Developer tab .

Open a template or use a blank document

To create a form in Word that others can fill out, start with a template or document and add content controls. Content controls include things like check boxes, text boxes, and drop-down lists. If you’re familiar with databases, these content controls can even be linked to data.

Go to File > New from Template .

New from template option

In Search, type form .

Double-click the template you want to use.

Select File > Save As , and pick a location to save the form.

In Save As , type a file name and then select Save .

Start with a blank document

Go to File > New Document .

New document option

Go to File > Save As .

Go to Developer , and then choose the controls that you want to add to the document or form. To remove a content control, select the control and press Delete. You can set Options on controls once inserted. From Options, you can add entry and exit macros to run when users interact with the controls, as well as list items for combo boxes, .

Adding content controls to your form

In the document, click or tap where you want to add a content control.

On Developer , select Text Box , Check Box , or Combo Box .

Developer tab with content controls

To set specific properties for the control, select Options , and set .

Repeat steps 1 through 3 for each control that you want to add.

Set options

Options let you set common settings, as well as control specific settings. Select a control and then select Options to set up or make changes.

Set common properties.

Select Macro to Run on lets you choose a recorded or custom macro to run on Entry or Exit from the field.

Bookmark Set a unique name or bookmark for each control.

Calculate on exit This forces Word to run or refresh any calculations, such as total price when the user exits the field.

Add Help Text Give hints or instructions for each field.

OK Saves settings and exits the panel.

Cancel Forgets changes and exits the panel.

Set specific properties for a Text box

Type Select form Regular text, Number, Date, Current Date, Current Time, or Calculation.

Default text sets optional instructional text that's displayed in the text box before the user types in the field. Set Text box enabled to allow the user to enter text into the field.

Maximum length sets the length of text that a user can enter. The default is Unlimited .

Text format can set whether text automatically formats to Uppercase , Lowercase , First capital, or Title case .

Text box enabled Lets the user enter text into a field. If there is default text, user text replaces it.

Set specific properties for a Check box .

Default Value Choose between Not checked or checked as default.

Checkbox size Set a size Exactly or Auto to change size as needed.

Check box enabled Lets the user check or clear the text box.

Set specific properties for a Combo box

Drop-down item Type in strings for the list box items. Press + or Enter to add an item to the list.

Items in drop-down list Shows your current list. Select an item and use the up or down arrows to change the order, Press - to remove a selected item.

Drop-down enabled Lets the user open the combo box and make selections.

Protect the form

Go to Developer > Protect Form .

Protect form button on the Developer tab

Note:  To unprotect the form and continue editing, select Protect Form again.

Save and close the form.

Test the form (optional)

If you want, you can test the form before you distribute it.

Protect the form.

Reopen the form, fill it out as the user would, and then save a copy.

Creating fillable forms isn’t available in Word for the web.

You can create the form with the desktop version of Word with the instructions in Create a fillable form .

When you save the document and reopen it in Word for the web, you’ll see the changes you made.

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COMMENTS

  1. PHP: Properties

    Within class methods non-static properties may be accessed by using -> (Object Operator): $this->property (where property is the name of the property). Static properties are accessed by using the :: (Double Colon): self::$property. See Static Keyword for more information on the difference between static and non-static properties.

  2. Object Assignment in PHP

    Object Assignment in PHP Ask Question Asked 11 years, 3 months ago Modified 11 years, 3 months ago Viewed 5k times Part of PHP Collective 8 First, sorry for the stupid question, but I was reading an article in php.net and I couldn't understand what exactly it says.

  3. PHP: Objects

    To create a new object, use the new statement to instantiate a class: <?php class foo { function do_foo() { echo "Doing foo."; } } $bar = new foo; $bar->do_foo(); ?> For a full discussion, see the Classes and Objects chapter. Converting to object ¶ If an object is converted to an object, it is not modified.

  4. How to create new property dynamically

    In PHP, you can create a new property for an object dynamically by using the magic method __set. Here's an example: <?php class MyClass { public function __set($name, $value) { $this -> $name = $value ; } } $obj = new MyClass (); $obj ->newProperty = "Hello World" ; echo $obj ->newProperty; // Outputs: "Hello World" Try it Yourself »

  5. PHP: Objects and references

    When an object is sent by argument, returned or assigned to another variable, the different variables are not aliases: they hold a copy of the identifier, which points to the same object. Example #1 References and Objects <?php class A { public $foo = 1; } $a = new A; $b = $a; // $a and $b are copies of the same identifier // ($a) = ($b) = <id>

  6. PHP OOP

    Define Objects Classes are nothing without objects! We can create multiple objects from a class. Each object has all the properties and methods defined in the class, but they will have different property values. Objects of a class are created using the new keyword. In the example below, $apple and $banana are instances of the class Fruit:

  7. Adding Properties to a Base Object (PHP Cookbook)

    7.12.3. Discussion. Just as array( ) returns an empty array, creating an object of the type stdClass provides you with an object without properties or methods.. Like objects belonging to other classes, you can create new object properties, assign them values, and check those properties:

  8. PHP: How to access properties and methods of an object

    To create an object, you need to define a class and use the new keyword. Here's a basic example: class Car { public $color = 'blue'; public function drive() { echo "Driving\n"; } } $myCar = new Car(); To access the properties and methods of this Car object, you use the '->' (arrow) operator:

  9. PHP OOP Static Properties

    Syntax ClassName::$staticProp; Let's look at an example: Example <?php class pi { public static $value = 3.14159; } // Get static property echo pi::$value; ?> Try it Yourself » Example Explained Here, we declare a static property: $value.

  10. Typed Properties in PHP 7.4

    Type New Feature PHP 7.4 finally brings typed properties. This is a feature I have been looking forward, and I have been spending some quality time working on my existing projects to add support for typed properties. With typed properties, you can set a type for all class properties.

  11. How to Create an Object Without Class in PHP

    In the example below, json_encode() function converts the JSON object to PHP object of stdClass. The var_dump() function shows the property and the value of the object. Thus, we created an object without creating a class in PHP. It also displays the type of the value. Please check the PHP Manual to understand more about the json_decode() function.

  12. PHP: Setting and Getting Property Values

    Manipulação de XML. Setting and Getting Property Values. The following examples assume is the root of a tree of data objects created from the schema and instance document shown above. Exemplo #1 Access via property name. Data object properties can be accessed using the object property access syntax. The following sets the company name to 'Acme'.

  13. PHP: ArrayObject

    This class allows objects to work as arrays. Class synopsis ¶ class ArrayObject implements IteratorAggregate , ArrayAccess , Serializable , Countable { /* Constants */ const int STD_PROP_LIST; const int ARRAY_AS_PROPS; /* Methods */ public __construct ( array|object $array = [], int $flags = 0, string $iteratorClass = ArrayIterator::class)

  14. PHP 8: Constructor property promotion

    The basic idea is simple: ditch all the class properties and the variable assignments, and prefix the constructor parameters with public, protected or private. PHP will take that new syntax, and transform it to normal syntax under the hood, before actually executing the code. So it goes from this:

  15. Null-safe operator

    PHP 8.0: Null-safe operator. Null-safe operator is a new syntax in PHP 8.0, that provides optional chaining feature to PHP. The null-safe operator allows reading the value of property and method return value chaining, where the null-safe operator short-circuits the retrieval if the value is null, without causing any errors.

  16. Assigning Values to a Class Property in PHP

    Assigning Values to a Class Property in PHP Ask Question Asked 12 years, 9 months ago Modified 12 years, 9 months ago Viewed 2k times Part of PHP Collective 1 One of the examples in the PHP book I am learning from (illustrating private properties) starts like this:

  17. How to Create Array of Objects in PHP

    Create an Array of Class' Objects in PHP. We can use the array () function to create an array of objects in PHP. The function will take the object as the arguments and will create an array of those objects. We can create objects by creating a class and defining some properties of the class. The properties of the class will have some values.

  18. PHP: Object Iteration

    2. next() is not the equivalent of java next(). It returns nothing, while Java next() method return the next object, and move to next object in Collections. PHP's next() method will simply move forward. Here is a sample with an array, first in java, then in php : <?php class ArrayIterator < O > implements Iterator < O > {private final O [] array;

  19. Create a form in Word that users can complete or print

    Show the Developer tab. If the developer tab isn't displayed in the ribbon, see Show the Developer tab.. Open a template or use a blank document. To create a form in Word that others can fill out, start with a template or document and add content controls.

  20. php

    php - Add property and value in a object array - Stack Overflow Add property and value in a object array Ask Question Asked 8 years, 1 month ago Modified 4 years, 3 months ago Viewed 24k times Part of PHP Collective 4 im quite new in php OOP, and im using laravel has my framework of choice.