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Social Media Marketing: Gaining a Competitive Advantage by Reaching the Masses

by Tapiwa Susupence

Free Related PDFs

Simona Vinerean

Technological innovation has grown at an unprecedented rate over the past couple of decades, creating multiple opportunities for marketing in online settings. The proliferation of social media helps customers become more empowered and engaged in their brand interactions, while also providing them with new tools in their search, evaluation, choice and purchases of marketing offerings. Consequently, these developments are influencing marketing practices, both strategically, and tactically. Nowadays, social media has developed in an essential part of marketing strategy for its ability to generate co-created value, to interactively connect brands to consumers, to monitor brand-related discussions and sentiments, to guide consumers in the decision-making process, to instigate customer-to-customer interactions, and transform consumers into brand advocates. The purpose of this paper is to examine the strategic opportunities of social media marketing for organizations. By providing a compre...

Importance of Strategic Social Media Marketing

Muneeba Khan

In the present, we see there is radical change in how business operates and how people interact. Those days have been passed away when pure brick models work for business to thrive in the current scenario. It makes difficult for a business to grow without using social media strategy. Social media had become really significant gradient in today's marketing mix in general and in promotion mix in particular. Adapting some form of marketing online through social media is a key node for all businesses. Social media has a positive impact and a positive influence on the company as well as the customers. Social media is becoming an essential tool for marketers, which is at a very minimum investment. This study understands the benefits, impact and importance of social media on business performance and growth.

Effectiveness of social media marketing: A tool for Marketing

International Res Jour Managt Socio Human

2022, isara solutions

In the modern era, digital marketing is gaining more importance and people are driven towards social media. These made digital marketing include social media platforms as an essential part to market their products and services. Social media platforms have rapidly emerged and gained more value and help to create and share information, interests, ideas, as well as one own expression through their platforms. Here we will see various social media platforms available on the internet and learn their impact on the market. The impact of social media trends is very important to understand the market, companies' position, and branding. Since social media marketing is a new and specialized method of marketing, some of its areas may be unknown to business owners. This makes social media marketing challenging for people thus many are skeptical about using digital marketing strategies to grow their business. Thus, in this research, we have discussed various challenges and opportunities which will give a clear picture to all the readers.


Efthymios Constantinides

2014, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences

Foundations of Social Media Marketing

Maryna Martynenko

Revista Amazonia Investiga

This article provides an in-depth analysis of the role of social media as a powerful tool for promoting services and goods on the Internet in the conditions of impressions economy. The authors take a closer look at the role of social media in marketing strategies, its impact on consumers, and the effectiveness of campaigns. The main purpose of the article is to explore various strategies, tactics, and success factors of using social media to support a brand, engage the audience and increase sales. Analyzing various social media marketing strategies, the authors of the article emphasize the importance of creating interesting and meaningful content and engaging with the audience. It reveals the importance of creating a brand identity and supporting it through social media channels. The article also examines the impact of social media on customer purchase, conversion, and loyalty. Among the key success factors of social media marketing, the article identifies the choice of the right pl...

Social Media Marketing as a tool for promoting services and goods on the internet

The Social Media have changed the power structures in the marketplace; evidence points to a major power migration taking place and to emergence of a new breed of powerful and sophisticated customer, difficult to influence, persuade and retain. The paper outlines the nature, effects and present status of the Social Media, underlying their role as customer empowerment agents. It explains their aptitude and possible roles as part of the corporate Marketing strategy and identifies different ways of engaging them as marketing tools. The paper proposes two possible Social Media marketing strategies: a. The passive approach focusing on utilizing the Social Media domain as source of customer voice and market intelligence. b. The active approach i.e. engaging the Social Media as direct marketing and PR channels, as channels of customer influence, as tools of personalizing products and last but not least develop them as platforms of co-operation and customer-generated innovation. Finally the paper identifies future research directions around this new element of the marketing landscape

Constantinides E., 2014, Foundations of Social Media Marketing, 2nd International Congress on strategic Innovative Marketing, 13 – 17 September 2013, Prague, Czech Republic.

Moira K Clark

Social media is a mix of psychology, sociology and technology offering great opportunities as well as challenges to businesses in today’s fast moving and competitive environment. This report examines the rise of social media and its potential business impact while exploring best practice in developing effective social media strategies. The review begins with a consideration of what constitutes social media and social networking before going on to consider the influences that motivate people to engage in social media. This research includes an extensive literature review of both academic and practitioner sources in order to identify best practice for developing effective social media strategies. A comprehensive six-stage framework depicting how to plan, run and improve the use of social media as part of the marketing strategy is included. This simple, but effective framework covers most situations and can be deployed in most companies whether operating in the business-to-consumer (B2...

Developing a social media strategy

Social media itself is a catch-all term for sites that may provide radically different social actions. For instance, Twitter is a social site designed to let people share short messages or “updates” with others. Facebook, in contrast is a full-blown social networking site that allows for sharing updates, photos, joining events and a variety of other activities. Social media has become a platform that is easily accessible to anyone with internet access. Increased communication for organizations fosters brand awareness and often, improved customer service. Additionally, social media serves as a relatively inexpensive platform for organizations to implement marketing campaigns. Social media often feeds into the discovery of new content such as news stories, and “discovery” is a search activity. Many people also perform searches at social media sites to find social media content. Social connections may also impact the relevancy of some search results, either within a social media network or at a ‘mainstream’ search engine. Perhaps the greatest value of social media marketing is the ability to foster and engage with a community of other people. That engagement is at the heart of social media.

Social Medial Marketing: Strategic Tool in Business

Lucio Lamberti

RENL: A Framework for Social Media Marketing Strategy


Dr Santhosh Kumar K

"Social Media has been in the limelight in the recent past. There has been a whopping increase in the number of users on social media and more and more people joining day after day. With the spread of internet facilities across the world, more and more people got the facility to get into the World Wide Web. In 1995 there were about 16 million internet users worldwide which was merely 0.4% of the total population in the world. In the year 2012 internet were accessible to 2405 millions of people which is 34.3% of the total world population. There has been an increase of over 566% growth in the number of users between 2000 and 2012 as per the internet world statistics. The growth in the number of internet users and the growth of social media and its users have made it really attractive for the marketers to look at it as a better marketing tool there by making present in the various social media sites to market their product. Many a times the marketer goes live in the online space, but they do not follow up or keep themselves updated in the online space through the social media which brings negative results to them. Social media is a live medium which is updated every second. Are these participations worth? Or is social media marketing a myth or a reality? Is it going to help the marketers? This paper examines the effectiveness, opportunities, the threats and other aspects of social media marketing"


IAEME Publication

“Where people interact freely, sharing and discussing information about their lives.” Social media has become a platform that is easily accessible to anyone with internet access. It is growing at an explosive rate with millions of people all over the world generating and sharing content on a scale hardly imaginable a few years ago. Increased communication for organizations fosters brand awareness and often, improved customer service. Additionally, social media serves as a relatively inexpensive platform for organizations to implement marketing campaigns.The success and recognition of the business brand are the most crucial points which must be kept in mind while making a business plan. Today no one can deny the role of social media marketing to set and market throughout the globe. Social media is getting popular these days to promote various brands. The World is full of new media and digital communication technologies. There are many ways to promote the brand with the help of social media. The impact of promotion through social media is immense and gives a combination of speed and relevance. Brand awareness is one of the important factors which boost up the sales ratio of the product of the company. The present paper is an attempt to find out the purpose and benefits of using social media in present seconiro . The paper also highlights some important social media networks and gives a glimpse of the hindrances of the same


Velayudhan Karthik

Social media marketing off late has gained importance in the marketing departments to the extent of allocating human, technological and financial investments as a separate cost centre in the marketing plan of organizations during the budget planning stage. Social media is one of the main megaphones that a company uses to create its overall online presence, which in turn shapes brand recognition and sentiment. Any startup company or small business does not have an option to ignore social media as a means of communication and promotion given the rising costs of advertising and other traditional promotional methods. There is a building enthusiasm in marketers that social media is the next happening advertising or promotional space where one has to be. More than any other forms of communication models social media focus more on frequency and format of the information presented. It is a growing phenomenon that if a company is not in the social media, it may miss out the attention of a huge market segment who are totally internet addictive. But the fact that whether social media really benefits to organizations in increasing their 3 R’s- reach, revenue and rationale in buying decision is totally depended about how smartly the content is being used and networking is done. The demographics of the practioners and the target audience to whom the medium is targeted and the influence it has on buying decisions is still a big query for traditional marketers. There are many views associated with social media especially like, the target segment is very narrow or the product categories which can be marketed are specific and it is majorly for new age and digital products. There are even opinions relating to the discussion on credibility and negative feedback which are outcomes of posting information over the open social media which may in-turn affect the attractiveness of the products and services being promoted. There is a huge question mark about the success of social media in business to business (B2B) promotions because marketers believe that social media is keenly focused on individual customers rather than corporations and the impact will be minimal. This conceptual paper aims to address a set of 6 important and distinctive opinions about social media and applies system approach to find out whether they are indeed myths or realities and if they are myths what are the realities and finds out what are the factors which led to these myths and factors which will help in finding about the realities.

Social Media Marketing- Myths and Realities

GJESR Journal

Social media is one of today‟s biggest forms of communication and it has not only changed the way people interact everyday but also the way companies communicate This article is intended to help marketing managers and their teams get more familiar with how to harness the impact of social media in conjunction with their existing marketing plans and initiatives. Social media is the online content created by people using highly accessible and scalable publishing technologies The paper provides an overview of some of the recent research that has been conducted on how companies that sell to the education market are using social media. The way your organization uses social media will be directly influenced by how your customers and your target audience are using social media. Keywords- Social Media, Literarute etc.


altynai bil

Social Media: A Sustainable Future for Marketing

Ehi Aimiuwu

Social Media: Building a Competitive Edge

Social media is a continually evolving realm with an amazing potential for attracting and engaging customers which is very vital for any business. The social media mix consists of social networks, network feeds and social networking websites. Social media integrates technology, social interaction and content creation to collaboratively connect online information. Through social media, people or groups can create, edit, organize, comment on, combine and share content which help organizations to better achieve their mission and goals. The most commonly used social media by marketers are blogs, micro blogs, social networks, podcasts, discussion forums and RSS feeds. Marketers can use social media to promote the brand and business, tell customers about their goods and services find out what customers think of their business, attract and engage new customers and build stronger relationship with existing customers. Currently, marketers are trying to attract new customer base on the social media platform by deploying measures like search engine optimization, hosting online competition, providing surprise gifts on clicks and competitive pricing. Social media marketing has many advantages like broad reach, ability to target particular groups, free or low cost, fast easy and personal communication with individual customers and groups. Today, customers expect top level top level content and profile of the companies while clicking on the links of renowned social networking websites like Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Google Plus+, Tagged, MySpace and Ning. The customers’ ‘likes’ on the social media also provide a good mileage for the marketers. Customers expect surprises and innovative content on social media websites. The growth in the social media has overwhelmed many marketers as things are moving so fast in this arena, that they must stay busy keeping abreast of the latest developments and trends by using the proper social media mix to capture the target market. In this study, the author attempts to understand the emerging roles and trends of social media and internet marketing. This paper highlights the significance of social media and internet marketing in business. This paper analyzes the online consumer behavior, customer expectations and strategies deployed by marketers for attracting and retaining new customer base though social media by conducting a market survey.


Lebogang Maepa

ScienceDirect Foundations of Social Media Marketing

The present stage in the evolution of the Internet, commonly called Web 2.0, has revolutionized the way people communicate, interact, and share information and has radically changed the way customers search for and buy products. The increasing adoption of Web 2.0 applications and technologies has led to an explosion of customer-generated content and has opened new opportunities for networking and collaboration among customers. Web 2.0 applications have brought about a new media category, the Social Media, increasingly growing in importance at the cost of traditional media. The Social Media have changed the power structures in the marketplace; evidence points to a major power-migration that is taking place and to the emergence of a new breed of powerful and sophisticated customers, difficult to influence, persuade, and retain. The chapter outlines the nature, effects, and present status of the Social Media, underscoring their role as agents of customer-empowerment. It explains their aptitude and possible roles as part of the corporate marketing strategy and identifies different ways of engaging them as marketing tools. The chapter proposes two possible Social Media marketing strategies. One is a passive approach focusing on utilizing the Social Media domain as source of customer voice and market intelligence. The second is an active approach, engaging the Social Media as direct marketing and PR channels, as channels of customer influence, as tools of personalizing products, and last, but not least, developing them as platforms of co-operation and customer-generated innovation. Finally, the chapter identifies future research directions for this new element of the marketing landscape.

Constantinides, E. 2013, Social Media Marketing: Challenges and Opportunities in the Web 2.0 Marketplace. In: Consumer Information Systems and Relationship Management: Design, Implementation, and Use. IGI Global, 51 – 73

Ari Castillo

Social Media : Origins and Marketing Potential

European Scientific Journal ESJ

Development of internet and social media has led to significant changes in marketing. Companies are now making serious efforts to integrate social media into their marketing strategies. In order to be successful in these efforts, marketing experts need to think strategically, integrate social media campaigns into their marketing plans and use the right tools in the right way. They should also evaluate the campaign performance and its effect on business performance. The aim of this study is to define the strategic approach adopted by the companies and to explore how companies structure and measure their campaigns. Within the scope of the study, first literature review is made and then 20 successful Facebook campaigns are selected and analyzed through content analysis. The result of the analysis show that companies studied used megaphone strategy (by informing consumers through pages, ads and videos) and magnet strategy (by creating an environment for interaction through applications, surveys and competitions), but they did not use monitor strategy (following customers interaction with one another). Regarding how the campaigns were structured, it is found that half of them aimed to give new information and 20% were supported in offline platforms. The most preferred tool was the Facebook page, Facebook ads were more popular when compared to Facebook videos and the usage rate for surveys, competitions and applications were low. It is also found that like rate and participation rate were the two basic criteria companies used to measure the campaign performance but as the data provided by the companies was limited, it was not possible to comment on the general strategic approach they adopted.

Strategic Approach in Social Media Marketing and a Study on Successful Facebook Cases

mredu goyal

2018, Journal of emerging technologies and innovative research

The new “internet sensation” social media marketing has considerably influenced the world of marketing. Introduction of various new tools and the tremendous increase of the internet user base in the last decade along with easier internet access gave the big push. It has brought information on the fingertips of people ranging from news to promotional videos. This has made the world to be smaller beyond landscapes with swift contact and updates via web and mobile. These unique features of the marketing tool have gained the attention of various academicians and researchers. Accordingly, the main aim of this article is to systematically examine and review current studies that have been conducted over the related area of social media and marketing. The article tries to study different social media marketing strategies by reviewing various books, journals, studies, published papers, etc. The review of literature has been collected from both national and international secondary resources.

A Review of Literature on Social Media Marketing Strategies

Iaeme Publication


Moloy Ghoshal

In a rapidly changing era, entrepreneurs, as well as marketers, need to be up to date with the change in the business environment or they may have to face the risk of being obsolete. Days are long past when a conventional business model used to grow fast and get success. In the era of Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, and Instagram, social marketing has evolved as an integral part of marketing strategy. It is all most impossible to think of a marketing strategy without taking into account the importance of social media. Adopting some form of online promotion through social media has become essential for all business houses. In an industry where trends are changing in faster than light, adoption of social network marketing is very vital for companies to survive in that race. In this paper, the researcher has tried to find out the importance and effectiveness of social media as a marketing and promotional tool. An attempt has been made to analyze the extent of influence of social media as ...

Social Media as an Effective Tool to Promote Business- An Empirical Study

Dr. Rohit Bansal

Social Media Marketing-A Tool of Innovative Marketing

Luigi Dumitrescu , Mihai Tichindelean

The newest channels for communicating and selling to consumers are electronic. The Internet provides consumers and marketers with more opportunities than ever in achieving a greater interaction and individualization of services. Companies can send tailored messages that engage consumers by reflecting their special interests and behavior. Nowadays, very few marketing programs are considered complete without some type of prominent online


IJRASET Publication

2020, international journal for research in applied science and engineering technology ijraset

Social Media in many aspects has been changing industry. Since we're in the digital age, internet & social media have a most significant impact on the consumers behavior. We are witnessing a radical transition to digitalization in India. Social networking is a medium that not only links people around the world but serves the best for online marketing as well. The unwavering increase in demand and supply is increasing due to the rapid evolution of technology. Due to evolution of technology, the unremitting increase in supply & demand is growing. With the growth of the internet and an increase in utilization of smartphones, the time has come to change the conventional way of marketing. The no. of social media users in India is more than that of the other countries. Knowledge of customer motivation is critical as it gives consumers an understanding of what drives a brand or store to create content. Numerous methods of targeting customers are introduced. The use of Internet data by ordinary Indians is on the rise, with a lot of reliance on social media apps like Instagram , Facebook, Myspace, Twitter , LinkedIn, and Snapchat. Far more significant is the impact these apps have on daily life. The research can be expanded further to equate the techniques of internet making with those common to different customers.

A Study on Social Media Marketing

Philipp Rauschnabel , Chris Hinsch

Social media marketing is an integral element of 21st-century business. However, the literature on social media marketing remains fragmented and is focused on isolated issues, such as tactics for effective communication. The current research applies a qualitative, theory-building approach to develop a strategic framework that articulates four generic dimensions of strategic social media marketing. Social media marketing scope represents a range from defenders to explorers, social media marketing culture includes the poles of conservatism and modernism, social media marketing structures fall between hierarchies and networks, and social media marketing gover-nance ranges from autocracy to anarchy. By providing a comprehensive conceptualization and definition of strategic social media marketing, this research proposes an integrative framework that expands beyond extant marketing theory. Furthermore, managers can apply the framework to position their organizations on these four dimensions in a manner consistent with their overall corporate mission and objectives.

Elements of strategic social media marketing: A holistic framework

Hasan Mahmud

Effectiveness of Social media marketing

Information Technology's advancements are revolutionizing every business and firms. Social media marketing is the process of gaining awareness, driving traffic and engaging your customers and prospects using social media channels. Despite the current boom of Social networking sites for marketing, this study reveals that effectiveness of advertising through social networking sites. However, a Social networking site provides the ideal platform for direct communication between organizations and customers. Marketing on social network sites has to follow new rules and principles and each organization has to clearly determine if social media marketing is appropriate for them or not. Communication through internet is more specified, with effective interactive strategy among its users. In recent days, internet advertising has taken new forms which have more advantages over the traditional mediums like print media, television and radio. Marketing communication is becoming precise, personal, interesting, interactive and social. Different strategies of communication are followed in various social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Orkut etc., they not only create effect over the users but also make them interact with the marketing statistics created. People get attached to brand communication in social networking sites than usual banner and pop up ads. The study finds that social media marketing effectiveness is highly influenced by its messages/contents quality, the company's involvement, and its association with the other marketing platforms. In addition, a complex and detailed analysis of the strategy is needed in order to accurately measure the return on investment of the social media marketing. The study also finds that generation Y might be the main users of social media sites, but they are not the main target audience of the social media marketing.


Michael McCallum

This report investigates the roles of social media in marketing. It will examine this role with the Royal Shakespeare Company, the British Museum and the social activism Coke is Out of Order campaign. The report looks at the idea that social media campaigns are only one part of a total media approach. It is an approach that looks at the ‘Arc of Engagement’ as people’s needs for information vary. As people are in different parts of the arc, it is it important to offer different social and digital media platform access points. The Royal Shakespeare Company takes a total approach to social media coverage with access on each level. It is a structure that reflects a change in management structure at the company. The Grayson Perry exhibition held at the British Museum used a segmented audience approach to market the exhibition of the Turner Prize winning artist. The third case study of the Out of Order activist group shows how a low cost campaign can have massive reach if the ideas of simplicity, passion and humour are used.

Social Media Marketing

Open Access Publishing Group

This paper examines the key variances in application and strategy between different social media management strategies and its effective marketing. Social media firms have shown a great ability to control the stages in their product life cycles. These practices lead to managers in these firms overachieving on their respective KPIs and garnering industry attention. An analysis of social media management firms practice shows those high participatory-decisions and intellectual and manual skills contributed to these organizations' successes. A close look at Chinese companies' social media activities and its relevance to Chinese social media consumers is reviewed. Other factors like introducing the 'Like' button and various innovations are observed to have improved consumers' attitudes towards the social media brand. Customer engagement and content enrichment are proven to be driving forces in how online consumers perceive the social media brand. Consumers are demonstrated to be the main means of continuous sustainability and growth for these social media businesses. Thus, there is a ripple effect across all industries to vie for social media presence and validity.


milad kiaei

How the use of the Social Media has helped for effective Internet Marketing Campaigns

International Research Journal Commerce arts science

This research aimed at assessing the role of social media in the transformation of the marketing role. The study demonstrate that social media has transformed marketing and its benefits in the ever-changing political, economic, and competitive climate. Advertisement is the most notable aspect of marketing, although it encompasses other functions such as studying the characteristics of customers and handling complaints. Social media has transformed communication and marketing because it enables businesses to organize and coordinate real-time communication and continuously engages customers. Researchers observe that social media has emerged as the primary means of social and public communication. Facebook and Twitter offer the most relevant examples because they help businesses organize millions of customers through groups and followings. The study relied on the assessment of literature and select social media post to evaluate its implications on marketing. The study demonstrates that social media has transformed the marketing function by enabling an organization to achieve real-time interactions with customers. Social media has several integrated features such as "like" and "comment" to facilitate content sharing, create a global virtual network, and solicit feedback and opinions from followers. The information helps in understanding several aspects of the product experience.

Understanding how social media has transformed the marketing function

Maria Tiago , José M C Veríssimo

The second generation of Internet-based applications enhances marketing efforts by allowing firms to implement innovative forms of communication and co-create content with their customers. Despite the strengths of social media for marketing purposes, few studies have empirically explored why firms have begun to use it. To redress this shortcoming, this study adopts the perspective of the firm to facilitate an understanding of digital marketing and social media usage as well as its benefits and inhibitors. Through an online survey conducted in July and August of 2011, data were requested from marketing managers of the 2000 largest firms in Portugal. One hundred and seventy questionnaires were completed. Results demonstrate that firms face internal and external pressures to adopt a digital presence in social media platforms. Further, we identify four levels of digital engagement evolution and propose a new digital pattern matrix based on benefit perception and digital marketing usage. To successfully explore digital marketing and social media, marketers need to adopt marketing strategies to engage in relationship-based interactions with their customers. To meet this challenge, firms should complement their traditional Web practices with online social networking.

Marketing and Social Media_ Benefits and Ways Forward

Shahid Ahmed

Effectiveness of Social Media Networks as a Strategic Tool for Organizational Marketing Management

Miroslav Milojevic

2015, Ekonomika

Social networks as marketing channels

Joan Lindsey-Mullikin

2017, Business Horizons

Why strategy is key for successful social media sales

IJESMR Journal

In modern era everything is online. Internet is the part of everyone’s daily life. India has third largest internet users in the world after the US and China. S ocial media is playing a n important role in today’s era . F ew years back it was not so admired, but now a day it has changed the market scenario of businesses. People like to be more online rather than offline. M arketers also know this thing .E arli er promoting the products for any Marketers were too Tuff and costly, but now with the emergence of social media businesses and organizations have got a new way by which they can promote their product and s ervices with the maximum reach and minimum cost. N ow traditional media have replaced by social media. V arious social networking sites are used by marketers for promoting their products. This paper is an attempt to review/ enlighten the role of social media for marketers. The objective of this researc h pap er is to explore the potential of social networking sites to be utilized as an effective marketing tool in engaging consumers to parti cipate in marketing. This paper is trying to analyze the relevance of social media sites for marketers. This paper is also trying to enlighten some social media tools for marketers to promote their businesses


IOER International Multidisciplinary Research Journal ( IIMRJ)


ABSTRACT In recent years, social media has become ubiquitous and most important for social networking, content sharing and online accessing. Marketing which occurs via social media is known as Social Media Marketing (SMM). The study aimed to assess the use of social media marketing in order to measure its effect on resorts business in the Province of Batangas, Philippines. Specifically, it determined the profile of the selected resorts in terms of classification, years of operation, location, and the years media marketing was introduced in the business; identified the forms of social media utilized by the selected resorts; cited the positive and negative effect of social media marketing in the resorts business; specified the problems encountered by customers in using social media; ascended the differences of the responses of the selected resorts on the effects of SMM; and proposed a development plan for the proper utilization of SMM. The descriptive method was used with a self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument. Different statistical tools were used to answer the objectives of the study. Frequency distribution, ranking, weighted mean, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were employed to interpret and analyze the gathered data. It was concluded that the majority of the resort businesses in the Province of Batangas are classified as American Automobile Association ( AAA) which is the highest quality rating for resorts and operates 10 years and above. Most of the resorts are found in the 1st District of the Province of Batangas and have started introducing SMM from 2006 – 2010. All of the Resorts owner and customers were using the Facebook account. Both owners and customers of the resorts strongly agreed that there was positive and negative effect of SMM. Among the problems encountered in the use of SMM, frequent posting as well as account not maintained or updated. A proposed action plan was made for the proper utilization of SMM. Keywords: Social Media Marketing, Marketing Tool, Social Networking Sites, Descriptive Method, Higher Education, Philippines

Social Media Marketing -Maureen M. Atienza.pdf

Narendra Kumar

2020, International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Scientific Research

A Study Of Using Social Media Towards Development Of Modern Marketing Trends: Opportunities And Issues

Dr Loveleen Gaur

Media and technology has undergone radical transformation with time pertaining to change in requirements, technology up gradation, usefulness, using ease, accessibility etc. The main objective of mass media is to propagate facts and figures, generate consciousness and inform the community. Social media is regarded to be the subsequent prime revolution in the arena of communication. Social media is also an integral component of promotion and advertising campaigns, disseminating consciousness, marketing which is efficiently applied by startups and adept companies to generate a launching pad or stage for themselves. Progress in technology has enabled many businesses to reach mass or their fundamental customer base in no time and more effortlessly communicate with them which ultimately determine their goals and incline them towards buying judgments.

Harnessing Potentials of Social Media in Transforming Businesses

As the competition for Business is growing day by day the owners are concerned about the growth of their business. Social networking has become one of the most important parts of our daily life as it enables us to communicate with a lot of people. Social networking sites are created to assist in online networking. It is also is a platform where our creations and thoughts are presented to a huge lot of masses. Online social media represent a fundamental shift of how information is being produced, transferred and consumed. User generated content in the form of blog, posts, comments, and tweets establishes a connection between the producers and the consumers of information. Tracking the pulse of the social media outlets, enables companies to gain feedback and insight in how to improve and market products better. For consumers the abundance of information and opinions from diverse sources helps them tap into the wisdom of crowds, to aid in making more informed decisions. Social media platform (SM) in particular comprises a flourishing new set of viral marketing mechanism that are growing exponentially. More and more companies are using SM because they know it works[1]. How much they spend and how long they continue to spend it will depend on how efficient SM proves to be in the long run. The measurement of social media effectiveness or ROI (Return on Investment) is the key factor in the long term success of SM marketing and management program. The proposed system will calculate the gain of business by using social media as a platform.

Using Social Media To Gain Business Value

Since its first appearance, social media has gained a remarkable popularity in our life. As general, it has improved the ways of communication by providing more interactivity and effective approaches in sharing information. Today, social media oriented environments are widely used in almost every place all over the world. Thanks towide application spectrum of social media, it has been usedby people in even working life. We can see that especially popular social media environments are used by many companies in order to improve effectiveness and efficiency in their works. At this point, one of the most popular employment types of social media in work life is marketing and social media marketing has currently a vital role on success of companies in their marketing processes. Based on these explanations, objective of this work is to focus on social media and its employment in marketing. In this sense, the work has examined some remarkable, successful social media marketing campaigns and...

Social Media Environments and Their Role on Success of Marketing Processes *

Shiva Prasad

Digital Marketing Strategy using Social Media 2018

Dr. Rashad Yazdanifard Uriel Augustin

The Review of Online Social Media Marketing Evolution and Consumer Related Behaviour in Recent Year's By

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Original research article, role of social media marketing activities in influencing customer intentions: a perspective of a new emerging era.

social media marketing research paper pdf

  • 1 School of Economics and Management, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China
  • 2 Department of Management Sciences and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
  • 3 Faisalabad Business School, National Textile University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

The aim of this study is to explore social media marketing activities (SMMAs) and their impact on consumer intentions (continuance, participate, and purchase). This study also analyzes the mediating roles of social identification and satisfaction. The participants in this study were experienced users of two social media platforms Facebook and Instagram in Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. We used an online community to invite Facebook and Instagram users to complete the questionnaire in the designated online questionnaire system. Data were collected from 353 respondents, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the data. Results show that SMMAs have a significant impact on the intentions of users. Furthermore, social identification mediates the relationship between social media activities and satisfaction, and satisfaction mediates the relationship between social media activities and the intentions of users. This will help marketers how to attract customers to develop their intentions. This is the first novel study that used SMMAs to address the user intentions with the role of social identification and satisfaction in the context of Pakistan.


There has been tremendous growth in the use of social media platforms such as WhatsApp, Instagram, and Facebook over the past decade ( Chen and Qasim, 2021 ). People are using these platforms to communicate with one another, and popular brands use them to market their products. Social activities have been brought from the real world to the virtual world courtesy of social networking sites. Messages are sent in real time which now enable people to interact and share information. As a result, companies consider social media platforms as vital tools for succeeding in the online marketplace ( Ebrahim, 2020 ). The use of social media to commercially promote processes or events to attract potential consumers online is referred to as social media marketing (SMM). With the immense rise in community websites, a lot of organizations have started to find the best ways to utilize these sites in creating strong relationships and communications with users to enable friendly and close relationships to create online brand communities ( Ibrahim and Aljarah, 2018 ).

Social media marketing efficiently fosters communications between customers and marketers, besides enabling activities that enhance brand awareness ( Hafez, 2021 ). For that reason, SMM remains to be considered as a new marketing strategy, but how it impacts intentions is limited. But, to date, a lot of research on SMM is focused on consumer’s behavior, creative strategies, content analysis and the benefits of user-generated content, and their relevance to creating virtual brand communities ( Ibrahim, 2021 ).

New channels of communication have been created, and there have been tremendous changes in how people interact because of the internet developing various applications and tools over time ( Tarsakoo and Charoensukmongkol, 2020 ). Companies now appreciate that sharing brand information and consumer’s experience is a new avenue for brand marketing due to the widespread use of smartphones and the internet, with most people now relying on social media brands. Therefore, developing online communities has become very efficient. Social groups create a sense of continuity for their members without meeting physically ( Yadav and Rahman, 2017 ). A community that acquires products from a certain brand is referred to as a virtual brand community. Customers are not just interested in buying goods and services but also in creating worthwhile experiences and strong relationships with other customers and professionals. So, when customers are part of online communities, there is a cohesion that grows among the customers, which impacts the market. Therefore, it is up to the companies to identify methods or factors that will encourage customers to take part in these communities ( Ismail et al., 2018 ).

The online community’s nature is like that of actual communities when it comes to creating shared experiences, enabling social support, and attending to the members’ need to identify themselves, regardless of the similarities and variances existing between real-world communities and online communities ( Seo and Park, 2018 ). Regarding manifestations and technology, online communities are distinct from real-life communities since the former primarily use computers to facilitate their operation. A certain brand product or service is used to set up a brand community. Brand communities refer to certain communities founded based on interactions that are not limited by geographical restrictions between brand consumers ( Chen and Lin, 2019 ). Since consumers’ social relationships create brand communities, these communities have customs, traditions, rituals, and community awareness. The group members learn from each other and share knowledge about a product, hence appreciating each other’s actions and ideas. So, once a consumer joins a particular brand community, automatically, the brand becomes a conduit and common language linking the community members together because of sharing brand experiences ( Arora and Sanni, 2019 ).

Based on the perspective of brand owners, most research has focused on how social communities can benefit brands. However, there are also some discussions regarding the benefits that come from brand community members according to the members themselves to analyze how social community impacts its members ( Shareef et al., 2019 ). Consumer’s behavior is influenced by value so, when a consumer is constantly receiving value, it leads to consumer’s loyalty toward that brand. According to Alalwan et al. (2017) , a valuable service provider will create loyalty to a company and enhance brand awareness. Consumer value is essentially used in evaluating social networking sites. With better and easier options to create websites coming around, most consumers are attracted to a social community to know about a company and its goods. Furthermore, operators can learn consumer’s behavior through maintaining social interactions with customers. However, the social community should have great value. It should be beneficial to the potential customers by providing them with information relevant to the brand in question. Furthermore, customers should be able to interact with one another, thus creating a sense of belonging. From that, it is evident that a brand social community’s satisfaction affects community retention and selection.

Literature Review

Social media marketing activities.

Most businesses use online marketing strategies such as blogger endorsements, advertising on social media sites, and managing content generated by users to build brand awareness among consumers ( Wang and Kim, 2017 ). Social media is made up of internet-associated applications anchored on technological and ideological Web 2.0 principles, which enables the production and sharing of the content generated by users. Due to its interactive characteristics that enable knowledge sharing, collaborative, and participatory activities available to a larger community than in media formats such as radio, TV, and print, social media is considered the most vital communication channel for spreading brand information. Social media comprises blogs, internet forums, consumer’s review sites, social networking websites (Twitter, Blogger, LinkedIn, and Facebook), and Wikis ( Arrigo, 2018 ).

Social media facilitates content sharing, collaborations, and interactions. These social media platforms and applications exist in various forms such as social bookmarking, rating, video, pictures, podcasts, wikis, microblogging, social blogs, and weblogs. Social networkers, governmental organizations, and business firms are using social media to communicate, with its use increasing tremendously ( Cheung et al., 2021 ). Governmental organizations and business firms use social media for marketing and advertising. Integrated marketing activities can be performed with less cost and effort due to the seamless interactions and communication among consumer partners, events, media, digital services, and retailers via social media ( Tafesse and Wien, 2018 ).

According to Liu et al. (2021) , marketing campaigns for luxury brands consist of main factors such as customization, reputation, trendiness, interaction, and entertainment which significantly impact customers’ purchase intentions and brand equity. Activities that involve community marketing accrue from interactions between events and the mental states of individuals, whereas products are external factors for users ( Parsons and Lepkowska-White, 2018 ). But even though regardless of people experience similar service activities, there is a likelihood of having different ideas and feelings about an event; hence, outcomes for users and consumers are distinct. In future marketing, competition will focus more on brand marketing activities; hence, the marketing activities ought to offer sensory stimulation and themes that give customers a great experience. Now brands must provide quality features but also focus on enabling an impressive customer’s experience ( Beig and Khan, 2018 ).

Social Identification

A lot of studies about brand communities involve social identification, appreciating the fact that a member of a grand community is part and parcel of that community. Social identity demystifies how a person enhances self-affirmation and self-esteem using comparison, identity, and categorization ( Chen and Lin, 2019 ). There is no clear definition of the brand community or the brand owner, strengthening interactions between the community and its members or creating a rapport between the brand and community members. As a result, members of a community are separated into groups based on their educational attainment, occupation, and living environment. Members of social networks categorize each other into various groups or similar groups according to their classification in social networks ( Salem and Salem, 2021 ).

Brand identification and identification of brand communities emanate from a similar process. Users can interact freely, hence creating similar ideologies about the community, alongside strengthening bonds among members, hence enabling them to identify with that community. The brand community identity can also be considered as a convergence of values between the principles of the social community and the values of the users ( Wibowo et al., 2021 ).

According to Lee et al. (2021) , members of a brand social community share their ideas by taking part in community activities to help create solutions. When customers join a brand community, they happily take part in activities or discussions and are ready to help each other. So, it is evident that social community participation is impacting community identity positively. Community involvement entails a person sharing professional understanding or knowledge with other members to enhance personal growth and create a sense of belonging ( Gupta and Syed, 2021 ). According to Haobin Ye et al. (2021) , it is high time community identity be incorporated in virtual communities since it is a crucial factor that affects the operations of virtual communities. Also, community identity assists in facilitating positive interactions among members of the community, encouraging them to actively take part in community activities ( Assimakopoulos et al., 2017 ). This literature review suggests that social communities need members to work together. Individuals who can identify organizational visions and goals become dedicated to that virtual company.


Customer’s satisfaction involves comparing expected and after-service satisfaction with the standards emanating from accumulated previous experiences. According to implementation confirmation theory, satisfaction is a consumer’s expected satisfaction with how the services have lived up to those expectations. Customers usually determine the level of satisfaction by comparing the satisfaction previously experienced and the current one ( Pang, 2021 ).

According to recent studies, community satisfaction impacts consumer’s loyalty and community participation. A study community’s level of satisfaction is determined by how its members rate it ( Jarman et al., 2021 ). Based on previous interactions, the community may be evaluated. When the members are satisfied with their communities, it is manifested through joyful emotions, which affect the behavior of community members. In short, satisfaction creates active participation and community loyalty ( Shujaat et al., 2021 ).

Types of Intentions

A lot of studies about information and marketing systems have used continuance intention in measuring if a customer continues to use a certain product or service. The willingness of customers to continue using a good or service determines if service providers will be successful or not. According to Zollo et al. (2020) , an efficient information marketing system should persuade users to use it, besides retaining previous users to guarantee continued use.

Operators of social networks must identify the reason propelling continued use of social network sites, alongside attracting more users. Nevertheless, previous studies on information systems in the last two decades have mainly concentrated on behavior–cognition approaches, for instance, the technology acceptance model (TAM), theory of planned behavior (TPB), and theory of reasoned action (TRA) with their variants ( Tarsakoo and Charoensukmongkol, 2020 ; Jamil et al., 2021b ). According to Ismail et al. (2018) , perceived use and satisfaction positively impact a user’s continuance intention. The continued community members’ participation has two intentions. Continuance intention is the first one. It defines the community member’s intent to keep on using the community ( Beig and Khan, 2018 ; Dunnan et al., 2020 ). Then, recommendation intention, also known as mouth marketing, describes every informal communication that takes place among community members regarding the virtual brand community. Previous studies about members of a virtual community mostly entailed the continuous utilization of information systems ( Seo and Park, 2018 ; Sarfraz et al., 2021 ). Unlike previous studies, this study focuses on factors that support the continued participation of community members. So, besides determining how usage purpose affects continuance intention, the study also investigated the factors that influence users’ willingness to take part in community activities ( Gul et al., 2021 ).

Nevertheless, it is hard to determine and monitor whether a certain action occurred (recommendation or purchase) during empirical investigations. Consumers will seek relevant information associated with their external environment and experiences when purchasing goods ( Shareef et al., 2019 ). Once they have collected significant information, they will evaluate it, and draw comparisons from which customer’s behavior is determined. Since purchase intention refers to a customer’s affinity toward a particular product, it is a metric of a customer’s behavioral intention. According to Liu et al. (2021) , the probability of a customer buying a particular product is known as an intention to buy. So, when the probability is high, it simply means that the willingness to purchase is high. Past studies consider purchase intention as a factor that can predict consumer’s behavior alongside the subjective possibility of consumer’s purchases. According to Chen and Qasim (2021) , from a marketing viewpoint, if a company wants to retain its community besides achieving community targets while establishing successful marketing via the community, at least three objectives are needed. They include membership continuance intention, which entails members living up to their promises in the community and also the willingness to belong to the community ( Yadav and Rahman, 2018 ; Naseem et al., 2020 ). On the other side, community recommendation intention entails the willingness of members to recommend or refer community members to other people who are not members ( Jamil et al., 2021a ; Mohsin et al., 2021 ). The next consideration is the community participation intention of a member, which involves their willingness to participate in the activities of the brand community. Unlike past literature about using information systems, this study demystified how SMMAs influence purchase intention and participation intention ( Alalwan et al., 2017 ).

Development of Hypotheses

People with similar interests can get a virtual platform to discuss and share ideas courtesy of social media. Sustained communication of social media allows users to create a community. Long-lasting sharing of growth and information fosters the development of strong social relationships. The information posted on social media platforms by an individual positively correlates with the followers the user has. Regarding the discussion above, we proposed the following hypothesis:

H1: Social media marketing activities (SMMAs) have a significant impact on social identification.

The study of Farivar and Richardson (2021) on users’ continuance intention confirmed that it is influenced by satisfaction after service. Social media studies are also of the thought that satisfaction significantly affects continuance intention. So, a consumer will measure the satisfaction of service after using it. Mahendra (2021) claims that satisfaction influences repurchase behavior. Repurchase intention emanates from a customer’s satisfaction with a good or service. People who have similar interests may interact and cooperate in a virtual world via social media platforms. A community on social media may be formed by regularly connecting with people and exchanging information with them. Members benefit from long-term information and growth exchanges that enable them to create strong social relationships. A lot of studies have pointed out that repurchase intention and customer’s satisfaction are positively and highly related. Besides, marketing studies noted that satisfactory experience after using a product would impact the intention of future repurchase. Hence, we proposed the following hypothesis:

H2: SMMAs have a significant impact on satisfaction.

The study by Suman et al. (2021) on American consumer’s behavior suggested that members taking part in community activities (meetups, discussion, and browsing) influence their brand-associated behavior. According to Di Minin et al. (2021) , the brand identity of a consumer has a positive impact on satisfaction. Consumers capitalize on online communities to share their experiences and thoughts about a grand regularly and easily ( Sirola et al., 2021 ). These experiences make up the customer to brand experiences and establish a sense of belonging, trust, and group identity. In a nutshell, this study suggests that identity will enable members to recognize their community, hence confirming that members have similar experiences and feelings with a particular brand and feel united in the group ( Shujaat et al., 2021 ). Strong group identity means that members are integrated closely into the brand communities and highly regard the community. Hence, we proposed the following hypothesis:

H3: Social identification has a significant impact on satisfaction.

Brand communities are beneficial in the sense that they enable sharing of marketing information, managing a community, and exploring demands ( Dutot, 2020 ). These activities are likely to enhance consumer’s rights and increase customer’s satisfaction ( Sahibzada et al., 2020 ). A customer who makes an online transaction will be highly satisfied with a website that provides a great experience ( Koçak et al., 2021 ). Enhancing customer’s satisfaction, encouraging customer intentions, creating community loyalty, and fostering communication and interactions between community users are crucial to lasting community platform management ( Pang, 2021 ). Hence, we proposed the following hypotheses:

H4: Satisfaction has a significant impact on continuance intention.

H5: Satisfaction has a significant impact on participate intention.

H6: Satisfaction has a significant impact on purchase intention.

Thaler (1985) proposed transaction utility theory, in which consumers’ willingness to spend money is influenced by their perceptions of value. Researchers such as Dodds (1991) claimed that buyers only become ready to purchase after they have established a sense of value for a product. According to Petrick et al. (2001) , a product’s quality is dependent on the customer’s satisfaction. Several studies have shown that enjoyment, perceived value, and behavioral intention are all linked together. Hence, we proposed the following hypothesis:

H7: Social identification mediates the relationship between SMMA and satisfaction.

When it comes to information systems, Bhattacherjee et al. (2008) discovered that people’s continual intention is derived from their satisfaction with the system after they have used it. Studies on employee’s satisfaction in the workplace have shown that it has a substantial influence on CI. The amount of satisfaction that users have with the system that they have previously used is the most important factor in determining their CI, according to research on information system utilization intention.

In other words, the customer’s contentment with the product leads to the establishment of a desire to buy the thing again, as mentioned by Assimakopoulos et al. (2017) . Numerous studies show a strong link between customer’s satisfaction and their propensity to return for another transaction. According to a lot of marketing studies, customers who have a pleasant experience with a product are more likely to repurchase it. Hence, we proposed the following hypotheses:

H8: Satisfaction mediates the relationship between social identification and continuance intention.

H9: Satisfaction mediates the relationship between social identification and participate intention.

H10: Satisfaction mediates the relationship between social identification and purchase intention.

Figure 1 shows the research framework of this study.

Figure 1. Conceptual framework.

Conceptual Framework

Research methodology.

This study designed a questionnaire according to the hypotheses stated above. The participants in this study were experienced users of two social media platforms Facebook and Instagram in Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. A pilot study with 40 participants was carried out. Since providing recommendations, revisions were made to the final questionnaire to make it more understandable for the study’s respondents. To ensure the content validity of the measures, three academic experts of marketing analyzed and make improvements in the items of constructs. The experts searched for spelling errors and grammatical errors and ensured that the items were correct. The experts have proposed minor text revisions to social identification and satisfaction items and advised that the original number of items is to be maintained. This study used an online community to invite Facebook and Instagram users to complete the questionnaire in the designated online questionnaire system. Online questionnaires have the following advantages ( Tan and Teo, 2000 ): (1) sampling is not restricted to a single geological location, (2) lower cost, and (3) faster questionnaire responses. A total of 353 questionnaires were returned from respondents. There were 353 appropriate replies considered for the final analysis.

The study used items established from prior research to confirm the reliability and validity of the measures. All items are evaluated through 5-point Likert-type scales where “1” (strongly disagree), “3” (neutral), and “5” (strongly agree).

Dependent Variable

To get a response about three dimensions of intention (continuance, participate, and purchase), we used eight items adopted from prior studies;

1. Continuance intention is measured by three items from the study of Bhattacherjee et al. (2008) , and the sample item is, “I intend to continue buying social media rather than discontinue its use.”

2. Participate intention is evaluated by three items from the work of Debatin et al. (2009) , and the sample item is, “my intentions are to continue participating in the social media activities.”

3. Purchase intention was determined by two items adapted from the work of Pavlou et al. (2007) , and the sample item is, “I intend to buy using social media in the near future.”

Independent Variable

To analyze the five dimensions of SMMAs, we used eleven items adopted from a prior study of Kim and Ko (2012) .

1. Entertainment is determined by two items and the sample item is, “using social media for shopping is fun.”

2. Interaction is evaluated by three items, and the sample item is, “conversation or opinion exchange with others is possible through brand pages on social media.”

3. Trendiness is measured by two items, and the sample item is, “contents shown in social media is the newest information.”

4. Customization is measured by two items, and the sample item is, “brand’s pages on social media offers customized information search.”

5. Word of mouth is measured by two items, and the sample item is, “I would like to pass along information on the brand, product, or services from social media to my friends.”

Mediating Variables

We used two mediating variables in this study,

1. Social identification was measured with five items adopted from the prior study of Bhattacharya and Sen (2003) , and the sample item is, “I see myself as a part of the social media community.”

2. Satisfaction was evaluated with six items adopted from the study of Chen et al. (2015) , and the sample item is, “overall, I am happy to purchase my desired product from social media.”

This research employs a partial least square (PLS) modeling technique, instead of other covariance-based approaches such as LISREL and AMOS. The reason behind why we pick PLS-SEM is that it is most suitable for confirmatory and also exploratory research ( Hair Joe et al., 2016 ). Structural equation modeling (SEM) has two approaches, namely covariance-based and PLS-SEM ( Hair et al., 2014 ). PLS is primarily used to validate hypotheses, whereas SEM is most advantageous in hypothesis expansion ( Podsakoff et al., 2012 ). A PLS-SEM-based methodology would be done in two phases, first weighing and then measurement ( Sarstedt et al., 2014 ). PLS-SEM is ideal for a multiple-order, multivariable model. To do small data analysis is equally useful in PLS-SEM ( Hair et al., 2014 ). PLS-SEM allows it easy to calculate all parameter calculations ( Hair Joe et al., 2016 ). The present analysis was conducted using SmartPLS 3.9.

Model Measurement

Table 1 shows this study model based on 31 items of the seven variables. The reliability of this study model is measured with Cronbach’s alpha ( Hair Joe et al., 2016 ). As shown in Table 1 , all items’ reliability is robust, Cronbach’s alpha (α) is greater than 0.7. Moreover, composite reliability (CR) fluctuates from.80 to.854, which surpassed the prescribed limit of 0.70, affirming that all loadings used for this research have shown up to satisfactory indicator reliability. Ultimately, all item’s loadings are over the 0.6 cutoff, which meets the threshold ( Henseler et al., 2015 ).

Table 1. Inner model evaluation.

The Cronbach’s alpha value for all constructs must be greater than 0.70 is acceptable ( Hair et al., 2014 ). All the values of α are greater than 0.7 as shown in Table 1 and Figure 2 .

Figure 2. Measurement model.

Convergent validity is measured by CR and AVE, and scale reliability for each item ( Hair Joe et al., 2016 ). The scholar says that CR and AVE should be greater than 0.7 and 0.5, respectively. By utilizing CR and average variance extracted scores, convergent validity was estimated ( Fornell and Larcker, 1981 ). As elaborated in Table 3 , the average variance extracted scores of all the indicators are greater than 0.50 and CR is higher than.70 which is elaborating an acceptable threshold of convergent validity and internal consistency. It is stated that a value of CR, that is, not less than 0.70, is acceptable and evaluated as a good indicator of internal consistency ( Sarstedt et al., 2014 ). Moreover, average variance extracted scores of more than 0.50 demonstrate an acceptable convergent validity, as this implies that a specific construct with greater than 50% variations is clarified by the required indicators.

Table 2. A mediation analysis.

Table 3. Discriminant validity.

This study determines the discriminant validity through two techniques named Fornell–Larcker criterion and heterotrait–monotrait (HTMT) ( Hair Joe et al., 2016 ). In line with Fornell and Larcker (1981) , the upper right-side diagonal values should be greater than the correlation with other variables, which is the square root of AVE, which indicates the discriminant validity of the model. Table 3 states that discriminant validity was developed top value of variable correlation with itself is highest. The HTMT ratios must be less than 0.85, although values in the range of 0.90 to 0.95 are appropriate ( Hair Joe et al., 2016 ). Table 3 displays that all HTMT ratios are less than 0.90, which reinforces the statement that discriminant validity was supported in this study’s classification.

To determine the problem of multicollinearity in the model, VIF was calculated for this purpose. The experts said that if the value of VIF is greater than 5, there is no collinearity issue in findings ( Hair et al., 2014 ). The results indicate that the inner value of VIF for all indicators must fall in the range of 1.421 to 1.893. Furthermore, these study findings show no issue of collinearity with data, and the study has stable results.

To evaluate “the explanatory power of the model,” the R 2 value was analyzed for every predicted variable. It shows the degree to which independent variables illustrate the dependent variables. R 2 value in “between 0 and 1 with higher values shows a higher level of predictive accuracy. Subsequent values of R 2 describe 0.25 for weak, 0.50 for moderate, and 0.75 for” substantial. An appropriate model is indicated by R 2 greater than 0.5 in primary results. In Figure 2 , the value of R 2 greater than 0.5 on all exogenous constructs, which also means that the model has strong predictive accuracy ( Hair Joe et al., 2016 ).

Table 4 displays the percentage of variance clarified for every variable: 62.7% of continuous intention, 55.5% of participate intention, 54.5% for purchase intention, 80.9% for satisfaction, and 81.8% for social identification. In general, results demonstrate that values of R 2 of endogenous variables are greater than 80%, which is the sign of a substantial “parsimonious model” ( Sarstedt et al., 2014 ). Most importantly, the outputs give a significant validation of the model. Q 2 values of all four 5 latent variables suggest that the model is extremely predictive ( Hair et al., 2014 ).

Table 4. Predictive accuracy and relevance of the model.

Hypothesis Testing

This study evaluates the significance of relationships using bootstrapping at 5,000 with a replacement sample ( Hair Joe et al., 2016 ; Awan et al., 2021 ). The findings show that SMMAs have significant relationship with social identification (β = 0.905, t -value = 36.570, p = 0.000) which accept the H1. The findings show that SMM significantly influences the satisfaction (β = 0.634, t -value = 8.477, p = 0.000). Social identification has significant positive relationship with satisfaction as shown in Table 5 (β = 0.284, t -value = 4.348, p = 0.000) which accept the H3. The results show that satisfaction has significant relationship with continuous intention (β = 0.792, t -value = 15.513, p = 0.000) which support the H4. The findings show that satisfaction has strong positive relationship with participant intention (β = 0.745, t -value = 12.041, p = 0.000), which support the H5. The findings show that satisfaction has strong positive relationship with purchase intention (β = 0.739, t -value = 12.397, p = 0.000) which support the H6. The findings of the current investigation support H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, and H6. The results show that H4, H1a, H1b, H3a, H3b, H2a, and H2b are accepted (refer to Table 5 and Figure 3 ).

Table 5. Hypothesis testing.

Figure 3. Structural model.

Preacher and Hayes (2008) argue that if the VIF value is greater than 80%, then it shows full mediation, and value of VIF equal to 20 to 80% which indicate the partial mediation and if VIF falls below 20%, then there is no mediation. The findings show that social identification mediates the relationship between SMM and satisfaction (β = 0.213, t -value = 3.570, p -value = 0.000) and indirect effect (β = 0.257, t -value = 4.481, p -value = 0.000) with variance accounted for (VAF) 75% which show partial mediation. In this, the VAF describes the size of the indirect effect in relation to the total effect ( Hayes and Preacher, 2010 ). The findings show that satisfaction mediates the relationship between social identification and continuous intention (β = 0.342, t -value = 3.435, p -value = 0.000) and indirect effect (β = 0.225, t -value = 4.636, p -value = 0.000) with VAF 64% which show partial mediation. In this, the VAF describes the size of the indirect effect in relation to the total effect ( Hayes, 2009 ). The findings show that satisfaction mediates the relationship between social identification and participant intention (β = 0.324, t -value = 5.325, p -value = 0.000) and indirect effect (β = 0.211, t -value = 4.338, p -value = 0.000) with VAF 73% which show partial mediation. The findings show that satisfaction mediates the relationship between social identification and purchase intention (β = 0.312, t -value = 3.434, p -value = 0.000) and indirect effect (β = 0.3.213, t -value = 5.437, p -value = 0.000) with VAF 78% which show partial mediation (refer to Table 2 ).

Discussion and Conclusion

The study was about SMMAs as proposed by Kim and Ko (2012) , and it investigated which factors influence social media usage. The findings of the study include the following:

Most studies about social websites have not exhausted the impact of SMMAs. According to this study, SMMAs significantly affect social identification, which ultimately influences purchase decisions, participation decisions, continuance intention, and satisfaction. The study demystified social media usage intention. The findings were that SMMAs could sustain corporate brands. According to Beig and Khan (2018) , unlike blog marketing and keyword advertising that were associated with content, SMM gets to the targeted audiences to enhance the impact of the information being shared by creating strong relationships in the online community. Therefore, service providers of social media must put into consideration means of increasing the impact of SMMAs. To boost SMMAs, operators should increase activity on the forum. The members of a community can be allowed to explain the guiding factors behind choosing a particular brand over that of competitors for other members to know the competing brands. From the discussions and sharing of knowledge, members get an opportunity to understand why they like a particular brand, thus enhancing brand loyalty and community cohesion ( Yadav and Rahman, 2017 ).

The study also confirmed that most administrators are concerned with the influence of brand community management in creating business advantage. According to Tarsakoo and Charoensukmongkol (2020) , marketing strategies and tools have undergone tremendous changes since the inception of social media. Consumers no longer must rely on traditional media to acquire information about a product before making their purchase since social media can effectively and easily avail such information. For that reason, social media service providers must come up with effective measures of controlling publication timing, frequency, and content to achieve the set marketing targets. According to this study, if a company can successfully assist users to easily identify with a particular brand community, strong relationships will be fostered between the consumers and the brand, hence creating customer’s loyalty ( Ebrahim, 2020 ). Besides, users may stop using competitors’ products. So, companies need to appreciate that proper management of online strategies and brand community in creating community identity enhances brand’s competitiveness and inspires members of the brand community to shun using goods and services from competitors.

Limitations and Recommendations

Regardless of the efforts geared toward enabling in-depth data collection, research methodology, and research structure, there were still various limitations that ought to be dealt with in studies to be conducted in the future. For instance, using online questionnaires in data collection, some members might have been very willing to fill them because of their community identity, hence enabling self-selection bias that may impact the validity and authenticity of the outcomes. Besides, a cross-sectional sample was used in the study; hence, results from the analysis can only demystify individual usage patterns on well-known social media. Nevertheless, the different social media platforms provide different services; hence, long-term usage needs long-term observation. The outcomes of growth model analysis with the experimental values and browsing experiences of users at the various phases in longitudinal studies to be conducted in the future may be increasingly conclusive on casual relationships with variables. The third limitation of the study is that different countries or areas have different preferences regarding social media. Future studies should unravel the reasons behind individuals from various cultural backgrounds or countries using different social media platforms and what might be the demands and motivations behind their preferences. Besides, new social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter have unique characteristics which are different from traditional sites. Future studies should also focus on this shift. For this study, the emphasis was on SMMAs’ influence on user’s behavior and usage demands.

Data Availability Statement

The raw data supporting the conclusion of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.

Author Contributions

All authors listed have made a substantial, direct, and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.

This study was partly supported by the National Social Science Foundation of China (no. 19ZDA081).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The reviewer ZA declared a shared affiliation with one of the authors, SG, to the handling editor at time of review.

Publisher’s Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Keywords : social media marketing activities, social identification, satisfaction, continuance intention, participate intention, purchase intention

Citation: Jamil K, Dunnan L, Gul RF, Shehzad MU, Gillani SHM and Awan FH (2022) Role of Social Media Marketing Activities in Influencing Customer Intentions: A Perspective of a New Emerging Era. Front. Psychol. 12:808525. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.808525

Received: 03 November 2021; Accepted: 20 December 2021; Published: 17 January 2022.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2022 Jamil, Dunnan, Gul, Shehzad, Gillani and Awan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Syed Hussain Mustafa Gillani, [email protected]


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