Flexible Port Mapping

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NAT Port Mapping Protocol

From wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

NAT Port Mapping Protocol ( NAT-PMP ) is a network protocol for establishing network address translation (NAT) settings and port forwarding configurations automatically without user effort. [1] The protocol automatically determines the external IPv4 address of a NAT gateway, and provides means for an application to communicate the parameters for communication to peers. Apple introduced NAT-PMP in 2005 by as part of the Bonjour specification, as an alternative to the more common ISO Standard Internet Gateway Device Protocol implemented in many NAT routers . [2] [3] The protocol was published as an informational Request for Comments (RFC) by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in RFC 6886 .

NAT-PMP runs over the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and uses port number 5351. It has no built-in authentication mechanisms because forwarding a port typically does not allow any activity that could not also be achieved using STUN methods. The benefit of NAT-PMP over STUN is that it does not require a STUN server and a NAT-PMP mapping has a known expiration time, allowing the application to avoid sending inefficient keep-alive packets.

NAT-PMP is the predecessor to the Port Control Protocol (PCP). [4]


Managed Switch Port Mapping Tool

Slide background

About the Managed Switch Port Mapping Tool

The Managed Switch Port Mapping Tool is software for Windows that discovers devices attached to port connectors on an SNMP managed network switch.

Ask Yourself...

Do you have a rack of ethernet network switches with cables leading to who knows where? Do you need to discover and identify the network devices attached to your switches? Do you need a single app to map port usage on several different brands of switches?

We can help!

Our Switch Port Mapper can discover and show you the MAC addresses and optionally IPv4 addresses of devices attached to the physical ports of your switches. Supply the SNMP access credentials for each switch and map them manually or as a list of switches.

Managed Switch Port Mapping Tool Highlights

Works with managed switches.

Specifically, SNMP managed network switches. You need to supply the SNMP read access credentials for each switch. We show the results in spreadsheet-like format.

Supports SNMP v2c/v3 Bulk Transfer mode. Significantly reduces required SNMP bandwidth.

Works with many Switch Brands

Works with Cisco (IOS/Nexus/Small Business), HPE (Aruba, Legacy HP, 3-Com), Dell/Force10, TP-Link, Juniper, Extreme Networks, Netgear and others.

Installed Version

Installed on your Windows 11/10 computer hard drive. This is a desktop application (GUI). Download Now!

Fully portable USB version runs from and saves data to a USB Flash Drive. Windows 11/10 (GUI). No installation necessary.

Try before Buy

Try out the fully functional installed version software for 30 days before buying. Download Now!

A single Installed Version license is $229. USB Version licenses slightly more. Discounts available, see Buy Now .

No Maintenance Plan

All v2.x updates are free.

Frequent Updates

We respond to user input and update the software as frequently as needed.

Automatically Saves Switch Data

All switch mappings are saved to an SQLite database for later review and searching.

Export Data

Export to XML (uses Excel compatible schema and can be imported into other spreadsheets) and printing.

Current Version

2.86.6 released May 3, 2023

Screenshots and Videos

These are a few screenshots of the app. Videos are available on this page.

Main Switch Port Mapper Window

NetScanTools is a registered trademark of Northwest Performance Software, Inc.

'NetScanTools Pro', 'NetScanTools Standard', 'NetScanTools LE', 'ipPulse', 'Northwest Performance Software' and 'NetScanTools.com', are trademarks of Northwest Performance Software, Inc.

Any trademarked names mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners.

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General Topics

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Port Mapping for Hikvision


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Network Address Translation (NAT) and port mapping configuration are required if Horizon Client s connect to virtual machine-based desktops on different networks.

In the examples included here, you must configure external addressing information on the desktop so that Horizon Client can use this information to connect to the desktop by using NAT or a port mapping device. This URL is the same as the External URL and PCoIP External URL settings on Horizon 7 Connection Server and security server.

When Horizon Client is on a different network and a NAT device is between Horizon Client and the desktop running the plug-in, a NAT or port mapping configuration is required. For example, If there is a firewall between the Horizon Client and the desktop the firewall is acting as a NAT or port mapping device.

An example deployment of a desktop whose IP address is illustrates the configuration of NAT and port mapping. A Horizon Client system with an IP address of on the same network establishes a PCoIP connection by using TCP and UDP. This connection is direct without any NAT or port mapping configuration.

This graphic illustrates the connection between a PCoIP client and PCoIPserver on the same network.

If you add a NAT device between the client and desktop so that they are operating in a different address space and do not make any configuration changes to the plug-in, the PCoIP packets will not be routed correctly and will fail. In this example, the client is using a different address space and has an IP address of This setup fails because the client will use the address of the desktop to send the TCP and UDP PCoIP packets. The destination address of will not work from the client network and might cause the client to display a blank screen.

This graphic illustrates a failure on a connection between the PCoIP client and server using a NAT Device.

To resolve this problem, you must configure the plug-in to use an external IP address. If externalIPAddress is configured as for this desktop, the plug-in gives the client an IP address of when making desktop protocol connections to the desktop. For PCoIP, the PCoIP Secure Gateway service must be started on the desktop for this setup.

For port mapping, when the desktop uses the standard PCoIP port 4172, but the client must use a different destination port, mapped to port 4172 at the port mapping device, you must configure the plug-in for this setup. If the port mapping device maps port 14172 to 4172, the client must use a destination port of 14172 for PCoIP. You must configure this setup for PCoIP. Set externalPCoIPPort in the plug-in to 14172.

This graphic illustrates setting up PCoIP client, security gateway, and server using a NAT Device and Port Mapping.

As with the external PCoIP TCP/UDP port configuration for PCoIP, if the RDP port (3389) or the Framework Channel port (32111) is port mapped, you must configure externalRDPPort and externalFrameworkChannelPort to specify the TCP port numbers that the client will use to make these connections through a port mapping device.

Subdomain port mapping

For reference, here is how Squash handles subdomains and multi-level subdomains .

Subdomain port mapping is a great way to define HTTP endpoints for microservices to facilitate the communication between apps and APIs. This feature works for Dockerfiles, docker-compose and any apps without Docker.

Example using Docker

For this example we will use a repository with the following file:

In the example above we have a CRM application consuming an API running on its own container/microservice.

Here is how the .squash.yml would look like:

And the docker-compose.yml would look like this:

Now, let’s assume you have a branch named “lib_upgrades” in the same repository mentioned above. Squash will create a URL like this for this branch ( more info on Squash URLs ):


And since you have defined the subdomain_port_mapping field in the .squash.yml file above, now you can access the API endpoint like this (note the double dashes on   api--  ):


Example using a regular app (no Docker)

This example is going to be very similar except that we are not expecting any Docker file. All the build and launch steps are specified in the .squash.yml file below. Summary:

Using the setup above in Squash is exactly the same as with the Docker setup. Let’s assume you have a branch named “lib_upgrades” in the same repository mentioned above. Squash will create a URL like this for this branch ( more info on Squash URLs ):

How to access the subdomain with the dynamic Squash URL inside my app

A question that arises from the examples above is regarding how to actually use the “api–” endpoint within the CRM app since the Squash URL is unique per branch . In the example above the “i3xg7” part from the URL will be unique per branch.

The solution is using environment variables. Squash will always set a small number of default environment variables on each deployment and container. For instance, you can use the SQUASH_DOMAIN environment variable within the CRM app to get a reference of the actual URL of that specific deployment.

Then it’s just a matter of appending the   api--  bit to the value returned by the environment variable and you now have the reference to the actual API endpoint.

The value of SQUASH_DOMAIN would look like this for the examples above: lib-upgrades-i3xg7.squash.io

Packet Pushers

Where Too Much Technology Would Be Barely Enough

Network Documentation Series: Port Mapping

John W Kerns August 2, 2015


You can download this article’s template file using the link to the right.

What to Document

The first question to ask when deciding to create a port mapping is which details should you record. The answer completely depends on your specific environment and what you plan to do with the documentation. Different requirements demand different data to be collected. I recommend you identify what you would like to do with this documentation before collecting and creating it. All that being said, the template linked to on this post contains a baseline of the most common data points which can provide a solid starting point.

Type This field details the layer-1 and layer-2 media and protocols used on the wire. Layer-1 can be things like RJ45, OM2 (SC), OS1 (LC), etc. Layer-2 can be things like Ethernet, PPP, or God forbid, Frame Relay.

Source Device Hostname & Port These fields record the hostname and port information of the source device. Whenever possible, I will use the port name as it is seen in the configuration terminal of the device.

***NOTE*** In case you are wondering the difference between the source device and the destination device, there really is no difference other than the fact that the focus of the document is always on the source device. In other words, the complete listing of ports for a device can be found in the section of the document where it is focused on as the source.

Patch Panel Fabric & Port When there is infrastructure cabling used in-between the source and destination device: it is handy to note down which patch panel and port is used for the connection. The “Fabric” column can be replaced with “Panel Name” or anything else which specifies the infrastructure cabling extension set.

Destination Hostname & Port This field defines the remote (non-focused) device and port where the connection terminates. When the port on the source device is empty and unused, these fields will be blank.

Destination Device Notes These fields can be used for notations about the destination device including information about its role, purpose, and if the documented link is in an aggregated group (port-channel).

Scripting Columns The scripting columns are used to generate configuration scripts using the information contained in the other columns. The scripting columns in the template are set up to generate port descriptions for Cisco based switches and will automatically detect when the different “Notes” fields are populated.

Documentation Tips

Make sure to visit the homepage for this series Network Documentation Series: Preamble and review the generic documentation tips listed there which apply to all network-related documents.

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About John W Kerns

John Kerns is a network and automation engineer for a VAR based in Southern California and has been in the industry for over 12 years. He maintains a few open-source projects on GitHub (https://github.com/PackeTsar/), blogs on PacketPushers, and hosted the Infotrek podcast (http://www.infotrekpodcast.com/)

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August 11, 2015 at 9:50 pm

Pretty basic… but that’s good! It can be difficult to start from scratch. Perhaps even more difficult when you’ve got SOME kind of documentation that you know doesn’t work, that you know you should redo from scratch, but just can’t figure out where to start from.

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August 13, 2015 at 9:21 am

Nice! I use a very similar document with one more column for VLAN like “U1 T10 T11” meaning Untagged vlan 1 (or native if a trunk) and Tagged vlan 10 and 11 (or TA for trunk ALL vlans).

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March 8, 2018 at 3:01 pm

Great article John .it can be develope more on more depend on any network environments .its a good teplate .Thanks

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  1. Flexible Port Mapping

    DISCLAIMER: This is NOT an official IBM document ADVERTENCIA: Éste NO es un documento oficial de IBM DISCLAIMER: This is NOT an official IBM document ADVERTENCIA: Éste NO es un documento oficial de IBM ANUNCIO Flexible Port Mapping

  2. NAT Port Mapping Protocol

    The NAT Port Mapping Protocol is a network protocol for establishing network address translation settings and port forwarding configurations automatically without user effort

  3. Port Mapping for Hikvision

    Hi, having just joined vidafone broadband today I have been trying to work out how to setup port mapping for hikvision cctv remote access

  4. MikroTik on Twitter: Be it port mapping or port forwarding, it's just another name for

    This Tweet is from an account that no longer exists. Here's the most recent feedback we've received, so you can rest assured that the devices are indeed being used

  5. Using Network Address Translation and Port Mapping

    Network Address Translation (NAT) and port mapping configuration are required if Horizon Clients connect to virtual machine-based desktops on different networks

  6. Subdomain port mapping

    Subdomain port mapping is a great way to define HTTP endpoints for microservices to facilitate the communication between apps and APIs

  7. Network Documentation Series: Port Mapping

    A well designed Port Mapping can be useful when tracking port usage and updating port descriptions. Learn how to build one or just download the template!