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B.Tech 1st Year English – ELCS MANUAL LAQSHYA, KMM
by Vijay Kumar
FREE RELATED PAPERS
2019, Applied Linguistics for Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners
Experimental phonetics employs the methods of investigation commonly used in other disciplines-e.g., physics, physiology, and psychology-for measuring the physical and physiological dimensions of speech sounds and their perceptual characteristics. The sound spectrograph and speech synthesizers were mentioned in the section on acoustic phonetics. Other techniques include the use of X-rays; air-pressure and air-flow recording; palatography, a method of registering the contacts between the tongue and the roof of the mouth; and cinematography. All of these techniques have been used for studying the actions of the vocal organs. Much of the work in experimental phonetics has been directed toward obtaining more accurate descriptions of the sounds that characterize different languages. There have also been several studies aimed at determining the relative importance of different features in signalling contrasts between sounds. But experimental phoneticians are probably most concerned with trying to discover the central cerebral processes involved in speech. MOTOR THEORY One issue of this kind that has been extensively discussed is the so-called motor theory of speech perception. There is a great deal of evidence that the way in which people speak greatly influences their perception of what is said to them. For example, speakers of Spanish cannot pronounce the different vowels in words such as ship and sheep in English. These people also have difficulty in hearing the difference between these two vowels. But when they have learned, by trial and error methods, to say them correctly, then they can easily hear the difference. Similarly, using synthetic speech stimuli it is possible to make a series of consonant sounds that go by acoustically equidistant steps from [b] through [d] to [g]. When listeners hear these synthetic sounds they do not consider the steps between them to be auditorily equidistant. The steps that correspond to the large articulatory movements between the consonants are heard as being much larger than the equal size acoustic steps that do not correspond to articulatory movements occurring in the listener's speech. Facts such as these have led some phoneticians to believe that the perception of speech is structured more in motor-articulatory-terms than in acoustic terms. Other phoneticians have claimed that the evidence does not really distinguish between these two possibilities but demonstrates simply that the perception of speech is structured in terms of linguistic categories. Perception of speech Another major problem is the size of the units that are involved in the perception of speech. Some authorities have claimed that a listener distinguishes between words by making a series of binary decisions concerning the features in each segment that he hears. Others hold that the listener takes in information in much larger temporal pieces and perhaps processes speech in terms of units of at least the size of a syllable. All authorities agree on the importance of context in the processing of information. Speech conveys information in a redundant way. Experiments have shown that a listener need attend to only a part of the information presented to him in order to understand all that is being said. A related problem is that of the temporal structure of speech production. There may be very little structure, and a speaker may simply time the movements of his vocal organs by allowing each gesture to run its course before starting on the next one. Alternatively, he may impose a hierarchical structure on the gestures by requiring, for instance, each major stress in a sentence to occur at some predetermined moment, and the articulatory movements to be speeded up or slowed down depending on the number of movements that have to occur before the major stress. There is some evidence in favour of this latter possibility as a result of experiments in which a speaker is asked to say a given phrase first slowly and then fast. When he is speaking at a rate that is twice as fast as some other rate, then the interval between the major stresses is about halved. But the duration of each segment is not halved. The consonants are only slightly reduced in length, whereas the vowels are considerably shortened. Some authorities have used the results of experiments of this kind to argue that the stress group is the major unit in the temporal organization of speech.
accent This word is used (rather confusingly) in two different senses: (1) accent may refer to prominence given to a syllable, usually by the use of pitch. For example, in the word 'potato' the middle syllable is the most prominent; if you say the word on its own you will probably produce a fall in pitch on the middle syllable, making that syllable accented. In this sense, accent is distinguished from the more general term stress, which is more often used to refer to all sorts of prominence (including prominence resulting from increased loudness, length or sound quality), or to refer to the effort made by the speaker in producing a stressed syllable. (2) accent also refers to a particular way of pronouncing: for example, you might find a number of English speakers who all share the same grammar and vocabulary, but pronounce what they say with different accents such as Scots or Cockney, or BBC pronunciation. The word
Although our species has the scientific name Homo sapiens, 'thinking human', it has often been suggested that an even more appropriate name would be Homo loquens, or 'speaking human'. Many species have sound-based signalling systems, and can communicate with other members of the same species on various topics of mutual interest, like approaching danger or where the next meal is coming from. Most humans (leaving aside for now native users of sign languages) also use sounds for linguistic signalling; but the structure of the human vocal organs allows a particularly wide range of sounds to be used, and they are also put together in an extraordinarily sophisticated way. There are two subdisciplines in linguistics which deal with sound, namely phonetics and phonology, and to fulfil the aim of this book, which is to provide an outline of the sounds of various English accents and how those sounds combine and pattern together, we will need aspects of both. Phonetics provides objective ways of describing and analysing the range of sounds humans use in their languages. More specifically, articulatory phonetics identifies precisely which speech organs and muscles are involved in producing the different sounds of the world's languages. Those sounds are then transmitted from the speaker to the hearer, and acoustic and auditory phonetics focus on the physics of speech as it travels through the air in the form of sound waves, and the effect those waves have on a hearer's ears and brain. It follows that phonetics has strong associations with anatomy, physiology, physics and neurology. However, although knowing what sounds we can in principle make and use is part of understanding what makes us human, each person grows up learning and speaking only a particular human language or languages, and each language only makes use of a subset of the full range of possible, producible and distinguishable sounds. When we turn to the 1
Unit objectives: i. discuss the differences between vowels and consonants ii. provide a classification of English vowels based on their acoustic and functional properties iii. explain the design principles and the practical applications of the system of cardinal vowels iv. examine the articulatory and functional characteristics of the English monophthongs v. examine the articulatory and functional characteristics of the English diphthongs and tripthongs
This volume is aimed at introductory level students of English phonetics and phonology. Presupposing no previous knowledge of either phonetics or phonology, it introduces the subject with a minimum of technical terminology.
Dwi A S T U T I W A H Y U Nurhayati
2019, Akademia Pustaka
Linguistics is an important tool to understand the meaning behind the language. Some of its branches are context-related, but the others are not. Phonetics and phonology are the free-context. These two are talking about sound, where this book is focused on. The purpose of this book is to introduce the phonology to the student. By knowing the process of sound, they could become better speaker of listener. Thus, we are not the native speaker of English, without knowing the tone or the assimilation of some words will make us confuse. That’s why phonology and phonetics becomes important on this case. To help the students find more about the issues covered in this book, each chapter ends with a set of exercise and some link of video that related to the topic. The exercise will enable the students to check their understanding of the main points or important terms introduced in the chapter. Meanwhile, the link of the video will provide an opportunity to figure out about how the patterns are applied in daily life. The students will be able to know more about the use of the pattern in native speaker way of speaking. This book is made from many references that can be found in the internet. Some of the references are not free, iv but the students still can find the related references with free e-book. This book is not complete edition to cover the whole phonology material. There is a lot of lack in this book. Therefore, it will be a quite useful input to have feedbackabout the content of this book.
2012, Fundamentals of English Phonetics and Phonology Ayo Osisanwo
Fundamentals of English Phonetics and Phonology has been written out of our sincere desire to help the learners of English (especially as second language) to understand better, the definition, formation, description, classification, transcription of not only English sounds or sounds of other languages across the world; but the other terms related to phonetics and phonology. Designed for students of Universities and Colleges of Education, especially students undergoing courses related to Phonetics and Phonology, it is hoped to give both the undergraduate and postgraduate students a basic introduction to the phonetics and phonology of English. Apart from the expressive and comprehensive nature of the text, it has elaborate references of materials consulted, and theses that are also meant for further reading. It also has index for easy referencing. The lucidity of presentation in the text makes it a unique addition to the existing literatures on this aspect of language study. The book is divided into nineteen chapters. Each of the chapters covers different aspects to give a good foundation to the course – phonetics and phonology.
A practical course English Phonetics and Phonology: A practical course by Peter Roach has been a leading coursebook on English pronunciation for twenty-five years. It presents the basic theoretical material needed to understand phonetics, phonology and the pronunciation of English in the form of a 02-unit course. Each unit ends with notes on issues that deserve further study and recommendations for further reading, as well as notes for teachers and written exercises. In addition, there are audio exercises for every chapter of the course on the two accompanying CDs. The new edition adds to this a website with additional written and spoken exercises, as well as a wealth of other material offering a wider perspective on the subject. • Combines examination of theoretical matters with extensive practice material • Designed as a 02-unit course which is suitable both for self-study or group work • Includes notes for teachers working with a class and an answer key at the back of the book • Is suitable for beginners who are expected to achieve a thorough working knowledge of English phonetics and phonology • Includes updated references and bibliography, greater coverage of different varieties of English • Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/peterroach for additional exercises and resources
2012, The Canadian Journal of Linguistics / La revue canadienne de linguistique
Language is a system of sound symbols used by humans for communication purposes. Therefore, teaching English essentially has the same scope and purpose cultivate the ability to express thoughts and feelings by using good and correct language so that someone can communicate well and correctly. There are many theoretical studies on this language. One of the studies about phonology. As a prospective educator, you should understand the study about this phonology to be used as a guide to teach lessons English. The author feels the need to compile this paper in order to help authors in particular and readers in generally to know about the boundaries and studies of phonology, some understanding of sound systems, phonetic studies, phonemic studies, English phonological symptoms.
Phonetics and Phonology-Basic Definitions Phonology and Phonetics are part of Linguistics. Linguistics is that area of research that analyses Human language and Human communication, from any perspective. In our case, the perspective is specific to sounds. So when we refer to a specific subarea of Linguistics in relation with the study of human sounds, we are really speaking of either Phonetics or Phonology. These terms are used when we describe a research activity related to the study of sounds, but they are not same. So, in the following paragraphs, we will concentrate on the definition of each term separately. Phonetics: Phonetics deals with what takes place once the sounds are actually produced, that is, Phonetics refers to the activity of the vocal tract, the acoustic features of sounds and perception of speech. These three stages also establish three different branches in Phonetics. 1. Articulatory Phonetics: deals with the articulation of sounds. Within articulatory phonetics researchers usually study the different parts and activities of vocal tract and the sounds that can be produced there: vowels and consonants. 2. Acoustics phonetics: deals with physical aspects of sounds, how sounds really are, since, in essence, sounds exist only because there occur disturbances of air particles. 3. Auditory Phonetics: is a branch of phonetics which studies how sounds are perceived, the psychological and neurological implications of such an activity. Phonology: Phonology is description of the systems and patterns of sounds that occur in language. There is a set of sounds which is attributed to every language, whereas the patterns of sounds means the combination of these sounds and other features, for example: syllable, stress, pitch and intonation. Because each language presents its unique set of sounds, these sounds are said to be distinctive sounds. To be distinctive means, by altering a single sound, whole meaning of word can be changed. So the first task of phonology is to determine which sounds can convey a difference in meaning. Problems faced in English Pronunciation: 1. Lack of correspondence between orthography (spellings) and pronunciation. E.g. sit/child, dinner/diner. 2. Interference of mother tongue: Foreigner speakers pronounce the sounds of English as they perceive them in their native language. 3. Lack of recognition of sounds like food, been, tomb, lamb, poem etc. 4. Improper use of length, intonation, stress and pitch. 5. Difficulty in fluent speech due to lack of understanding of sounds production. 6. Listening English language in unreal context leads to misconceptions of spoken language. Factors that can cause pronunciation problems: 1. Lack of confidence 2. Lack of vocabulary 3. The teachers did not focus on the pronunciation 4. Influenced by the surrounding Ways to Overcome: 1. Continuous Practice 2. Listening English language in required (BBC) accent. 3. Watch the English movies containing British accent, and watching BBC news. 4. Assign the teaching and learning process to the native speaker. 5. Understanding how the sound system of English functions. 6. Using audio materials which teach vocabulary and differences between two similar looking sounds. 7. Phonetics and Phonology classes. 8. Qualified phonology teachers. Phoneme: Any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another, for example p, b, d, and t in the English words pad, pat, bad, and bat. Vowels: As indicated earlier, vowel sounds are typically voiced. They are produced with a relatively unconstricted (open) vocal tract. Air flows freely through the vocal tract during their production. Also, the lips may be rounded or unrounded in vowel production.
María José Solé Sabater
RIZA N U R M U S L I M A T U N N I S A ' SIRAIT
2023, Riza Nur Muslimatun Nisa'Sirait
Phonology is usually defined as "the study of the speech sounds of a language or language, and the laws that govern them," specifically the laws governing the composition and combination of speech sounds in a language. Therefore, this journal was created based on a literature study conducted by the author to provide knowledge regarding vowel and consonant sounds in English pronunciation.
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