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Kahoot! stands with Ukraine
Kahoot! is committed to supporting Ukrainian educators and learners affected by the current crisis. To protect the integrity of our platform and our users, we will suspend offering Kahoot!’s services in Russia, with the exception of self-study.
Ukrainian educators and learners need our support
We are deeply troubled and concerned by the violence and loss of life resulting from the Russian invasion of Ukraine. We stand with the people of Ukraine and we hope for the swiftest and most peaceful possible end to the current crisis.
Kahoot! has received a number of requests from schools and educators in Ukraine requesting the help of our services to continue teaching despite the disruption of the war. We have supported each of these and we are now offering Kahoot! EDU solutions for free for both K-12 and higher education institutions for one year to Ukrainian schools in need. In addition, we are fast-tracking translation and localization of the Kahoot! platform into Ukrainian.
Suspending commercial services and sales in Russia
Our commercial footprint in the Russian market is very limited. We do not have offices or representation in the country, nor do we have any physical operations or data services there. The overwhelming majority of our users in Russia are teachers and students using our free service.
Kahoot! is abiding by the international sanctions regime, and does not allow sales to sanctioned individuals or entities in Russia. Shortly after the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Kahoot! initiated a process to suspend offering of all commercial services in Russia. This includes but is not limited to online sales, assisted sales, app store sales and prohibiting sales to Russian corporations and organizations.
Prioritizing safe and secure use of the Kahoot! platform
As part of our mission to make learning awesome, and as education remains a fundamental human right, we offer teachers, students and personal users free access to our platform. We do this in more than 200 countries and regions in a spirit similar to public commons services, such as Wikipedia.
Similarly, inclusivity is one of Kahoot!’s overarching values. As such, our aim is to, whenever and wherever possible, offer children, schools and others the opportunity to use digital tools for impactful education and learning, irrespective of their background or location. This has been our guiding principle also for offering our service in Russia.
Among our first responses to the crisis was to swiftly expand our global moderation team’s monitoring on all Russia-related content to safeguard the integrity of the platform.
However, as the situation continues to escalate, it is vital that we are able to ensure that our platform is used according to our own guidelines and standards. Therefore, in addition to suspending sales, we will be taking all possible and necessary steps to suspend access to Kahoot! services in Russia, with the eventual exception of self-study mode which will feature only content verified by Kahoot!.
This will enable students, school children and other individual users to continue their learning journeys both safely and responsibly. We will continue to assess ways in which our services can be offered safely and responsibly to support all learners and educators, also those based in Russia.
Supporting our employees
At Kahoot!, we are not just a team in name, we are a team in practice. As such, we are committed to the well-being of our employees, especially those with ties to Ukraine, or those that in other ways are particularly affected by the war. We are providing these colleagues with any support we can.
Acknowledging the current situation, the Kahoot! Group made an emergency aid donation to Save the Children and the Norwegian Refugee Council. This is a contribution to support life-saving assistance and protection for innocent Ukrainian children, families and refugees.
As the situation in Ukraine continues to develop our teams across the company are actively monitoring the crisis so that we can respond in the most responsible and supportive way possible.
Our hearts go out to the people of Ukraine, their loved ones, and anyone affected by this crisis.
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College student career development.
College Major and Career Choice
Some students enter college with clearly defined academic and career goals that do not change over their college years. However, many students find that college promotes self-exploration, and many individuals begin to gain specific information about the world of work during the college years. Just as the average adult changes jobs and even career fields multiple times, the average college student changes majors at least one time. Changing majors and/or career goals is a positive event for many students who discover new areas they believe will be highly satisfying. On the other hand, because changing majors may result in delayed graduation, deciding on a satisfying major early can be beneficial. Deciding on a major with which the student will be satisfied represents an early challenge.
The process of deciding on a major differs from student to student. Some students first decide on a career and then seek an academic major that will help prepare them for that career. For example, a college student who wants to become a physician may choose to major in biology. Other students first decide on a major on the basis of their interests or skills and then seek a career for which they are prepared. As an example, a student may major in history because he or she has enjoyed an introductory history course and then search for specific careers or jobs for which a history degree is beneficial.
Students’ decisions about majors and careers are often made on the basis of their interests and their perceptions that the major and/or career will allow them to satisfy their interests. The trait-and-factor approach to career decision making suggests that individuals seek activities that allow them to express their interests and personalities. With respect to choosing a major, for example, a student who enjoys artistic expression would be most likely to choose a major such as dance, creative writing, or theater.
Students also choose a major and career goals on the basis of their expectations about being able to succeed in the field and their expectations of having positive consequences associated with choosing that field. Self-efficacy refers to a student’s appraisal of his or her likelihood of success. A young woman who doubts her ability to succeed in college math classes, even if she has very good math skills, is considered to have low mathematics self-efficacy, and accordingly, she may be less likely to major in mathematics. Students also make choices on the basis of their beliefs that choosing a given major or career goal will result in positive outcomes, a concept referred to as outcome expectations. If becoming an engineer would present benefits in terms of approval from others, for example, then a student would be more likely to choose engineering as a major.
Other influences on a college student’s career development include family members, who can have both positive and negative influences. Some students perceive their family members as exerting pressure to pursue particular college majors or careers. As a result, they feel free to choose only from a restricted range of possible majors or careers. Other students perceive their family members as providing support and validation for their decisions and therefore experience greater perceived freedom to pursue goals they believe will lead to satisfaction.
A variety of role models, including influential teachers, academic advisors, and even famous people the student does not know personally, can also influence a student’s career decision making by increasing his or her awareness of possible careers and what is involved in attaining them. For example, suppose a memorable grade school teacher has inspired a college student to become an education major. If the student talks to the teacher about how she advanced in her career, the student may learn important information about what it takes to be a successful teacher.
The process of choosing a major and career is also influenced by culture. The socialization of gender roles in Western cultures is such that boys are often encouraged to pursue activities that involve action, whereas girls are encouraged to pursue activities that involve affiliation. For example, in high school, girls may not be reinforced for achievements in science and math classes, and boys may not be reinforced when they show interest in cooking or caring for youngsters. These influences continue into college, and this may explain why men are less likely to choose a careers in nursing and women are less likely to pursue careers in science, engineering, and technology. Students of color; gay, lesbian, and bisexual students; students with physical disabilities; and nontraditional-age college students may experience additional challenges that affect career decisions made during college. For example, students of color in a predominantly White university may find it difficult to find similar role models from whom they can gather career information that resonates with them. Nontraditional-age college students, as well as some younger students, experience challenges managing multiple roles, such as those of student and worker or student and parent. Multiple-role conflict may also affect students who are not yet parents or spouses but anticipate having families in the future and are trying to select career goals they believe will be compatible with other roles they want to pursue in life.
Some college students simply do not know of majors or careers they would like to pursue. This state of being uncertain about career goals is referred to as career indecision. On the other hand, some students are certain that they have chosen an academic or career path that will lead to satisfying learning experiences and employment. The extent to which students have decided on a career is known as career decidedness. Many students experience career indecision at one time or another, so in many respects, this is a normal part of the career development process. However, a prolonged period of career indecision is problematic because for many students, being undecided about a career or college major not only delays entry into a field of study but is also associated with psychological distress.
There are many potential reasons why a student may experience career indecision. Some students have difficulty making decisions in many areas of life, perhaps because they believe that it is important to make perfect choices and that choices are irreversible. For other students, the source of career indecision may be low career decision self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in one’s ability to make a career decision). Students with high levels of career decision self-efficacy have confidence in their abilities to engage in the tasks necessary to make a career decision, and for these students, the process of making career choices is manageable. Students with low levels of career decision self-efficacy perceive career decision-making tasks to be beyond their abilities, and they may benefit from career counseling or other interventions.
Academic achievement represents an important aspect of a college student’s career development. A student must demonstrate adequate academic performance to remain in college, and most college students aspire to a career that requires a college degree. Each year, up to 25 percent of first-year college students leave their colleges or universities before the sophomore year, and the graduation rate for an entering class of freshmen may be only 50 percent. Leaving college before graduating is a positive decision for some students. For example, a student may decide to pursue a career that does not require a college degree. For other students, the decision to leave college is not voluntary, such as when poor grades lead to a student being academically dismissed; in this case, academic difficulties may slow progress toward attaining a satisfying career.
A second reason academic achievement is important is that it increases the likelihood of the student securing a satisfying job after college. In a tight job market, students with the best academic records will have a competitive edge. This achievement extends beyond the classroom to the securing of desirable internships, volunteer experiences, and part-time employment in the student’s field of study.
Academic achievement also helps build a student’s self-efficacy with respect to his or her area of study. Successfully performing a behavior is one of the key ways in which a student develops the expectation that the behavior can be successfully performed in the future. For example, earning high grades in several sociology classes would increase a student’s self-efficacy for completing the tasks necessary to succeed as a sociologist.
Academic achievement in college appears to be facilitated by strong academic skills, good preparation in high school, a motivation to do well, beliefs that one can succeed in college, valuing the process of learning, and integration with the institution. Some barriers to academic achievement in college center on problems with a student’s ability to perform well in the classroom. Such problems might include inadequate preparation in high school, specific learning disabilities that have not been identified, or unrealistic expectations about the amount of work required to do well in college classes. Other barriers to academic achievement in college include low motivation, such as when a student feels pressure to attend college from family members but does not really want to be in college. Finally, social problems may interfere with academic achievement. For example, college students who experience significant homesickness after making the transition from living at home to living at college may simply not do well in their classes until they have become integrated into the campus community.
The Initial Job Search
Finding a job after college is often a primary goal of a college student. Students in this stage of career development must learn skills such as resume writing and interviewing. Students often have had experience applying for jobs, but finding the first career job after college is an imposing challenge for many students. Many students are able to find employment in their desired occupation shortly after graduation, but many students do not. Some of these students merely delay entry into a career consistent with their major, but other students find work in completely different areas.
Market forces, such as the unemployment rate, can dramatically affect a student’s success in finding a job after graduation. Job market constraints can pose potential barriers, such as when jobs in a student’s desired career field are very competitive or scarce. However, characteristics of the job market may also facilitate a student’s entry into work from college, such as when that person’s academic training allows him or her to fulfill needs in careers for which there is great demand.
Graduation from college does not always correspond to an immediate job search, because many students continue their education beyond the four-year degree. For some career goals selected by college students, a graduate degree or additional professional training is necessary. As graduate students choose areas of specialization for post-college training, they may experience challenges similar to those encountered by undergraduate students when selecting a major. The career development process for graduate students is not unlike that for undergraduate students, with one exception being a more limited range of career options for graduate students given their more specialized training.
Assessment and Intervention
Most colleges and universities offer career assessment and counseling services to assist students as they encounter developmental challenges associated with career development or when they experience particular career development difficulties. Regarding assessment, it is often desirable to assess a student’s interests, skills, values, and self-efficacy with respect to different majors and careers. Assessment in general helps with the process of exploring information about oneself, and an accurate understanding of oneself is a critical component of making career decisions. The assessment of interests provides information about the types of activities the student enjoys and can help a student identify specific careers or areas of study in which he or she might be interested. The identification of skills and self-efficacy helps a student narrow down the types of careers that he or she might be prepared to pursue. Many assessment instruments are administered and interpreted by a counselor, but self-guided computerized assessment procedures also exist. Regardless of the format, the assessment process is often a helpful way to enable a student to identify a specific career path that might lead to success and satisfaction.
Because of the large number of college students who would benefit from career development intervention, many colleges and universities offer courses or brief workshops designed to teach self-exploration and job search skills. In such courses and workshops, students may learn about the career development process, engage in self-assessment, learn about the world of work, and learn skills that will help them as they begin to seek employment.
When individualized treatment is desirable, career counseling may be used to reduce barriers associated with making career decisions. If a student is identified as having low career decision self-efficacy, for example, interventions may be implemented that provide opportunities for success. Sometimes a student is undecided about a major or a career because he or she has been depressed or has experienced a personal emotional upheaval. In these cases, career counseling may focus on the personal issues as a way to reduce their impact on career development.
Most colleges and universities also have career centers or other offices that can aid students with practical job skills. Workshops may help students develop resumes, hone interviewing skills, and find internships, for example. Many colleges and universities keep databases about current internships and part-time job opportunities that may be available for students. Colleges are also well equipped to help students experiencing academic difficulties.
Whether career intervention takes place in the classroom, at a counseling or career center, or in a job placement office, the goal is typically to help students learn how to make important life and career decisions both during and after college. As such, it is usual for interventions to enhance the student’s understanding of how to make effective career decisions, rather than just considering the decision made in college as the final outcome of career intervention.
- Crystallization of the vocational self-concept
- School-to-work transition
- Brown, D. 2003. “Career Development in Four-year and Community Colleges and Vocational-technical Schools.” Pp. 362-381 in Career Information, Career Counseling, and Career Development. 8th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
- Cabrera, A. F., Castaneda, M. B., Nora, A. and Hengstler, D. 1992. “The Convergence between Two Theories of College Persistence.” Journal of Higher Education 63:143-164.
- Hettich, P. I. 1998. Learning Skills for College and Career. 2d ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
- Lent, R. W. and Hackett, G. 1987. “Career Self-efficacy: Empirical Status and Future Directions.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 30:347-382.
- Luzzo, D. A., ed. 2000. Career Counseling of College Students: An Empirical Guide to Strategies That Work. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Luzzo, D. A., ed. “Facilitating the Career Development of Adults Attending Two-year Colleges.” Pp. 338-351 in Adult Career Development: Concepts, Issues, and Practices, 3d ed., edited by S. G. Niles. Columbus, OH: National Career Development Association.
- Niles, S. G. and Harris-Bowlsbey, J. 2005. “Career Development Interventions in Higher Education.” Pp. 344375 in Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century. 2d ed. Upper River Saddle, NJ: Pearson.
- Russell, R. K. and Petrie, T. A. 1992. “Academic Adjustment of College Students: Assessment and Counseling.” Pp. 485511 in Handbook of Counseling Psychology, 2d ed., edited by S. D. Brown and R. W. Lent. New York: Wiley.
- Zunker, V. G. 2002. “Career Counseling in Institutions of Higher Learning.” Pp. 483-511 in Career Counseling: Applied Concepts of Life Planning. 6th ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
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First-generation college students: Explore career options/plan, Nov. 8
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Explore a Career in Higher Education. Nov. 3 @ 12 pm
BSOS Career Planning, Events & Updates from the Feller Center
Interested in a Career in the Legal Field?
1of1 #firstgenterps: community, culture & career night.
November 8, 2023 | 5-7:30 pm | Register through Handshake Location: 3100 Hornbake Library, South Wing – Resource Room (University Career Center)
Are you a first-generation college student (FGCS) eager to supercharge your career prospects and connect with like-minded peers, mentors, and professionals? Look no further!
As we celebrate National First-Generation College Celebration Day, the University Career Center is excited to present the 1OF1 #FIRSTGENTERPS Program – an event celebrating YOU, empowering your career aspirations, and providing you with resources to navigate and enhance your career readiness as a #FIRSTGENTERP.
WHO ARE #FIRSTGENTERPS?
“A first-generation college student at UMD is defined as “a student whose parent(s)/legal guardian(s) have not completed a bachelor’s degree,” which means that you will be the first one to begin an educational legacy for your family by being 1 OF 1 #FIRSTGENTERPS (University of Maryland).
CAREER PANEL REPRESENTATIVE:
- Abijah Howell (Accenture)
- Solmary Zayas (Berkeley Research Group)
- Jenny Sak (University of Maryland)
Program Outline: (I) CHECK-IN & WELCOMES (II) FIRST-GEN PAIR, SHARE & CONNECT (III) FIRST-GEN ALUMNI CAREER PANEL (IV) FIRST-GEN PAIR & PITCH (V) FIRST-GEN COMMUNITY & NETWORK(ING)
Questions? Contact Pamela Allen, [email protected], with the University Career Center.
BSOS Feller Center, Career Planning
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When you are choosing your academic path and/or career, it is very important that students gather as much information as possible to assist in making educated decisions. Understand the What, Who, Where, How, and Why of career exploration and career decision making.
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Look at an individual assessment or combine your assessments to discover potential areas of study and career paths that match your interest, whether it is a degree program at KCC or a transfer program to a university.
For first time users, go to Focus 2 and click on the “Register” button. When asked about an access code, just enter “bruin” , and complete the registration process. On the main page, you will notice the following:
Self-Assessments: a selection of self-assessments including Work Interest, Personality, Leisure, Values, and Skills. You can also combine all 5 assessments to get more accurate results.
Explore the Possibilities: This is where students can dive deeper into their career exploration and see what KCC offers. You can also view occupation details, view job families of similar occupations, and compare multiple occupations side by side.
Take Action: You can create a road map of your academic and career development activities.
Student’s Career and Education Planning Results: You can review your results, your saved occupations, and review/print your portfolio.
Recommend Tools & Websites: Click on the “Links to Resources” button to view jobs available to all KCC students and alumni. To create an account with College Central Network (CCN).
For first time users, go to Pathway U and click on the “Join Now” button. Fill out your information and when done, click on “Find Your Calling.” On the dashboard, please view the “Getting Started” tile and click on “View Assessments.”
Complete these four different assessments that will be used to provide career and occupational information for you.
Assessments: complete the Interests, Values, Personality, and Workplace Preferences in about 20-25 minutes to see your explanation of results.
Review Your Results: after completing the assessments, you can view your results and see what careers pair well with your answers.
Explore Career Matches: Once you have reviewed your results, you can use our Career Match to see the careers available that would work best with your assessments.
Discuss Results: If you have any questions regarding your results, Career Match, or need any additional assistance, you can schedule an appointment with KCC’s Career Services. You can also reach out to Pathway U’s live chat online.
For first time users, go to Big Interview and click on the “Register” button at the bottom. Fill out your information and when done, select “Create Account.” On the dashboard, students will notice resources for resume building, AI feedback, and assistance with interviewing. There are also video lessons that students can practice with to prepare for their upcoming interview.
Resume Builder: Students can create a professional looking resume in just a few minutes. There will be video lessons available to help build an outstanding first impression.
AI Feedback Tool: Get immediate feedback on your interview answers and delivery – from eye contact to filler words and more. Students can also submit their resume through their program profile to receive AI feedback.
Build Your Perfect Answer: For tricky and important questions, it can really help you outline your key points and organize your thoughts. We have answer builders to guide you through creating great answers — including strong stories for behavioral questions and responses to Tell me about yourself, What are your greatest weaknesses, and more…
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EducationPlanner is a great starting point. Identify your skills and interests and then explore some suitable careers that you may enjoy.
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Want to get a good job after college? Use these tips to jump-start your career while you are in school.
Most students go to college to get a degree and to gain the skills employers want. Getting good grades is not enough to impress most employers. Students that follow the strategies listed below will be better prepared to promote themselves to employers.
Visit your college career and placement services.
Don't wait until your final days in college to visit your school's career center . Most colleges offer assistance in choosing majors, finding internships , locating employers seeking applicants in specific degree programs, exploring graduate school, and preparing for a job search. Take advantage of the assistance your program or college offers to add "real world experience" to your resume.
Employers want to know why you are a good fit for their company. Take time now to learn how your skills, values, interests, and personality influence your career choices. Use assessment tools from your college career services or free online assessment tools . What you learn about yourself will help prepare you for interviews and make resume writing easier. You'll also make better decisions while in school, including choosing a major and coursework.
Explore careers related to your degree.
Don't wait until you are graduating to think about the workplace. If you haven't already, research careers related to your major or program. Do you know what jobs you will be qualified for when you graduate? To help plan your career path, conduct several informational interviews with people who work with or hire people in your desired career. Ask them if your degree program and extra-curricular experiences have prepared you for the requirements employers expect.
Participate in career activities.
Potential employers expect job candidates to have related skills and experience, not just coursework, a good G.P.A., and other school achievements. To set yourself apart from other recent graduates, participate in internships, mentoring programs, and other work-based learning experiences. You can also participate in career-related volunteer opportunities, or part-time or summer employment related to your chosen career.
Use the information gained from your career and employer research to make the most of your school experience. Join a career-related student group, professional associations, or other groups that can help you to build your network , including online career-related groups. When possible, choose school projects related to trends and topics in your desired career.
Be a success in the workplace.
No matter what type of employment or volunteer experience you do while in school, take it seriously. Follow these tips to succeed at work now, and you will develop work habits that will benefit you after you graduate.
Appreciate the benefits of college.
Higher education pays off . Increasing your skills is more than just a trendy thing to do. It's a way to increase your earning power and employability throughout your career.
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October 31, 2023
Seattle Exploration Trek Provides Students with Career-Building Opportunities
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By Madeleine Nakamura
In a job market where effective networking and insider knowledge can make all the difference in jumpstarting one’s career, connections are a valuable resource—one that Scripps’ Career Planning & Resources (CP&R) is uniquely positioned to offer. Through initiatives such as the Career Exploration Trek program, CP&R connects Scripps students to an expanded network of alums and professionals from across The Claremont Colleges.
Career Exploration Treks began in 2015, when Clare Shaw ’11 offered to host a group of students at her Bay Area employer. Since then, the program has flourished, thanks to involvement, engagement, and gifts from the broader Scripps community. During the Trek to Seattle in August—which was the first nonlocal Trek since the program’s hiatus due to the COVID-19 pandemic—12 students explored possible career paths through visits to businesses and organizations, networked with alums and industry professionals, and learned about life and work in the Seattle area.
“The Trek was an incredible experience,” says Lillian Cowie ’26, who is majoring in economics and politics. “Our cohort walked away feeling confident in our ability to leverage our soft skills and liberal arts education in a formal setting. We visited a plethora of companies, so each cohort member met someone and learned something relevant to their field.”
The cohort visited seven organizations, including Amazon, the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center, Microsoft, and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. During their visits, the students toured each organization’s space, met with its employees, and gained perspective on its working environment from panel discussions with the employees.
Cowie felt that the most valuable insight she gained from the Trek was the importance of networking and building a personal brand. “The experience of meeting professionals in person is invaluable and cannot be replicated online,” she says. She intends to go into commercial real estate after graduation, and the Seattle Trek enabled her to refine her job search plans by connecting with professionals from CBRE, a large real estate advisory firm: “Hearing from them and learning about their company culture helped me understand what I am—and am not—looking for in an employer.”
Beyond the business-level information gained from the Trek, the cohort also gained insight into what to expect from their personal path in a broader sense. “Networking with alums taught me that your career path can be a winding one, and it’s okay if you jump all over the place before you settle into a position you love,” Cowie says.
As part of the Trek experience, the cohort also represented Scripps during the Seattle Family Welcome Reception for incoming students, hosted by the Parent Engagement Office. Cohort members answered questions from parents and incoming students about the Scripps experience and gave advice about how to get the most out of student life on campus. “The Seattle Career Exploration Trek cohort boasted some of the most proactive, involved, and community-driven students on campus. To see these bright students come together with new student families at the Seattle Welcome Reception was the perfect example of the mentorship that is naturally built into the tight-knit Scripps community,” says Blaike Cheramie ’22, administrative assistant for Institutional Engagement.
Finally, students on the Trek attended a 7C Alum and Industry Mixer, where they practiced their networking skills by making connections with 13 industry professionals, including software engineers, teachers, and content strategists from employers like Amazon and the Nature Conservancy. In total, the students met with 58 professionals over the course of the Trek, including 12 Scripps alums, one Scripps parent, and five alums from other members of The Claremont Colleges, making the Trek CP&R’s biggest to date.
In addition to its professional benefits, the Trek served as a way for the cohort to connect with each other. “The Seattle Trek was also a great opportunity to make meaningful connections with fellow Scripps students, something I would argue is even more valuable,” Cowie says.
CP&R recently hosted a San Francisco Trek. Plans for future Treks include a one-day Los Angeles Trek in early November and a Washington, DC Trek in March 2024.
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College and University Blog for Young Success
Career Planning for College Students
College students are of different types depending on how well or otherwise they can respond to the school. While some take things seriously from the first day of class, others leave everything to the last minute. Then, we have those who find the right balance between schoolwork and a healthy social life.
Whatever type of college student you may be, you would have to navigate through the rigors of college life to be successful. Sometimes, immediately preparing for the future may not be a priority, but in retrospect, most college students probably wished that they had started planning a lot sooner than they did. As most would wish, they had the foresight to buy Ethereum or Bitcoin before becoming a financial goldmine.
This guide contains detailed information on career planning, why it is important, what steps to follow, and how students plan their future careers. With a quick read, you can get a good idea of planning for life after college.
What is a Career, and What Does Planning for It Entail?
A career can be explained as a person’s growth within an occupation or a series of occupations. It is more than just an appointment or working arrangement. It also entails your progress through life and your experience in vocational and avocational duties.
It is easy to think that there is only one job best suited for you, but many good choices are available. The key to identifying such occupations is looking out for those that potentially provide you with a good probability of success and happiness.
On the other hand, career planning refers to all the steps taken to discover what you’re good at and work towards it. It may also include the deliberate act of investing your time and resources into growing yourself in a given area.
Successful career decisions are rooted in effective planning based on current and accurate information. These days, career information is readily accessible. Although this is often alleged to ensure a less challenging process, it doesn’t eliminate most students’ daunting and overwhelming thoughts.
Several new technologies have given rise to new career opportunities and made the spectrum for choosing a career more diversified. For instance, cryptocurrency and blockchain technology have prompted new digital finance and trade investments career paths.
Importance of Career Planning
It is essential to invest in career planning as it provides you with much-needed direction and aspiration. At the same time, it makes you completely aware of your strengths, weaknesses, and the skills you need to achieve your future objectives. A good portion of our life is usually spent achieving our career goals; hence, it is essential to make sure that the right steps are taken, especially while in college.
Very few individuals are born with a clear mind and path towards what they want to do. Most people are not sure of what they want from life, thus carefully planning things out. In essence, career planning gives several college students true purpose and meaning.
Career planning is a personal activity that occurs throughout a working lifetime. In most societies, the career center you find yourself in will influence your income, lifestyle, prestige, location, and association. Career planning can be effectively touted as an aspect of life planning and should be treated with such significance the way you will do trading Bitcoin or Ethereum.
Steps College Students Can Take to Plan Their Careers
Here are some steps students could take to plan their future careers.
Explore Possible Career Options
This step helps you become aware of several possibilities in your career path. In addition to learning appointment requirements, you will also learn position titles, skills, personal attributes, and the educational requirements needed to succeed in various fields.
Conduct Field Research
What better way to plan your career than to meet with someone working in the field? Do you want to go into cryptocurrency or invest in any of the digital technologies? Then, working with a crypto or blockchain enthusiast will make all the difference. This step requires you to meet people in different positions or industries related to your studies and ask them questions about their jobs. This is also a primary step to building your professional network.
Identify Your Job Target
After looking at your options through field research and career test exploration, now is the time to decide and set some objectives. This decision entails your job target; it can be specific to the industry and position you choose to pursue. In addition, your job targets are prone to change as you gain more knowledge and experience in the career planning process.
Structure Your Credential and Resume
In this step, college students have to focus on building their credentials. The more they do this, the better their overall resume becomes. A good resume leads to more job opportunities and interviews. Some of the best ways to build your credentials include;
- Taking internships within your job target
- Going for seminars
- Joining clubs or professional associations related to your job target
By doing any or all of these, you are positioning yourselves to harness opportunities in your career path.
Prepare for Your Job Search
This stage involves researching companies and organizations you want to work with after college. You could use the help of friends, family, or anyone that may have led some of these companies. You need to develop unique tactics for approaching employers to give yourself a better chance.
Using all these steps, you can make an informed decision to pursue your career as early as possible. This will make you ready for the real world and give you a great chance of success in your career path.
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The College Student's Guide to Career Planning
Career planning is learning about yourself and the world of work and then planning your career choices based on what you’ve learned. Knowing what you know about yourself, how do various occupations match up with your interests, skills, personality, and values?
An effective career planner is someone who: Views a plan as subject to change. Equates career success with personal satisfaction. Believes goals are independent of age. Assumes responsibility for his/her own career direction. - Robert Barner, The Futurist
The Career Planning Process
Career planning helps you to:
- Decide what type of job you want.
- Determine the skills you need to attain the ideal job.
- Discover how to obtain those skills.
- Develop ways to implement your plan.
To begin the process, ask yourself: What are my goals for the future?
Keep in Mind That...
- The working world is changing rapidly.
- You need goals and strategies to make your dreams come true.
- You are in charge of your career.
- You will need to be proactive in your career search.
- Employers are looking for employees who will enjoy their work.
Fortunately, you do not have to go through all the career options in the world to find a suitable occupation. In order to start your career exploration, you need to create a list of different occupations that might match your interests and skills. Before you begin narrowing down your possibilities, do some brainstorming to broaden your options.
Brainstorm on Your Own
- Libraries, Career Services, and Employment Offices
- Labor market information: www.bls.gov/ooh/
- Look back at your list of interests, skills, values, and traits that you possess
Brainstorm with Others Talk with friends, parents, teachers, neighbors, relatives, co-workers, etc. Tell them you are trying to figure out what to do with your life. They will probably jump at the chance to throw in their two cents. Keep in mind you are trying to come up with a master list of possibilities. Do not dismiss any suggestions. Do not make any commitments, either.
- Focus2 Career Exploration
- Reality Check - What can you earn?
- Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
- Candid Career
- Career Descision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire
There are many methods of research that you can use to gather information about potential careers. The list below begins with the least time-consuming method. As you narrow down your options however, use methods that require more time.
The Internet: There are plenty of Internet resources that contain useful occupational information. You can even research individual occupations through search sites. Many useful websites can be found on Career Services website .
Labor Market Information: This information focuses on such things as working conditions, wages, trends, qualifications, employer demands, as well as other factors which affect the market for labor.
Informational Interviewing: The informational interview is a chance for you to reverse roles and become the interviewer while a representative from the organization or occupation in which you are interested becomes the interviewee. The goal is to gather information about a particular job or career directly from an employee to help you find out if it is the kind of job in which you would be interested.
Volunteering: There are many advantages to volunteering. It gives you a firsthand look at possible occupations, provides a great way to network, enhances your resume, and will help you explore the pros and cons of possible fields.
Job Shadowing: Job shadowing gives you an insider’s view into career positions you are targeting, giving you a chance to learn what the career is all about without a significant time commitment.
Interning: An internship can be a paid or unpaid position and allows you to gain relevant experience in your chosen career field, or rule out certain career options.
Narrowing the Field
Now it's time to evaluate each of the options that you have identified and narrow your possible career options to a few. In order to evaluate your choices you should:
Check the Fine Print: Check out Career Services, Texas State’s Alkek Library, your academic advisor or department advisor. There are a wide variety of resources available to help gain critical information about your career options.
(Once Again) Surf the Net: Now that you have a list of interesting occupations, the Internet can help explain those professions in even more detail. Some sites recommended to help narrow your scope are:
- Bureau of Labor Statistics
- Occupational Outlook Handbook
- Career One Stop
Make a Decision
You have now come to the point where you need to make some choices. This may be more painful than the research. Follow these steps to help you through the process of making a decision.
- Name the Decision: Stating precisely what it is that you need to decide may help give you some perspective on the situation. What exactly is it that you need to know? What does a career mean to you in the first place? Five years?
- List the Alternatives: Write down at least two occupations that stood out during your search.
- Test Your Choice: Think of ways to test the alternatives you have chosen.
- Evaluate your Decision: How well did your choice work? If you need to, you can begin the process again.
Plan for the Future
Having chosen one of the career options, you can now begin developing and implementing a plan of action through internships, cooperative education, relevant summer employment, volunteer work, and campus activities. Some additional steps that you will need to take are:
- Investigate Any Additional Education or Training Needed: Does the career path require additional courses and are you willing to complete these?
- Develop a Job Search Strategy: Plan how you will find a job once you meet the requirements. Networking and gaining experience can help get your foot in the door.
- Write Your Resume and Compose a Cover Letter: Career Services has 48-hour resume and cover letter critiquing, as well as Career Counselors/Educator that can give professional advice.
- Prepare For a Job Interview: Draft answers to difficult questions that you could be asked. Career Services is available for mock interviews throughout the year.
- Gather Company Information: Investigate a potential employer to prepare for the interview, as well as to ensure that it is a workplace that fits your needs.
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Planning is bringing the future into the present so you can do something about it now. — Alan Lakein, writer
Looking for a Way to Get Ahead? Get a Career Plan!
The essential ingredients to creating a career plan include being aware that important decisions need to be made, understanding who you are, developing a mental map of the world of work, and identifying different ways you can contribute successfully.
Your career plan is based on exploration and informed choice. Students who invest the time and energy to think about what is important to them typically know the type of work they would like to do and set smart goals to graduate on time. They often carry less debt and spend less time switching from job to job trying to find direction. The net result is establishing a career path sooner, a more predictable income, and job satisfaction within the first few years after graduation.
What percentage of all college graduates would choose a different college major or a different school if they had it to do all over again?
- More than half
- Nope. Lots more.
- Keep going, even more.
- Starting to sound expensive, isn’t it?
- Nope. Can you believe it…even more!
- Unfortunately yes. Regret is not the feeling you want after investing your precious time, energy, and money into a college education. Let us help you orient to an inspiring direction now so that you can make the best choices for yourself down the road.
Start Early, Start SMART Career Readiness Program is typically appropriate for high school through sophomore in college students.
Start SMART Career Launch and Early Career Program is typically appropriate for college students approaching graduation and early career adults.
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Make a Career Plan
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A career plan lists short- and long-term career goals and the actions you can take to achieve them. Career plans can help you make decisions about what classes to take, and identify the extracurricular activities, research, and internships that will make you a strong job candidate. Below are some helpful steps to guide you in creating a career plan customized to your interests and ambitions. Still have questions? We are here to help — set up an appointment with a Career Advisor to get started or review your plan.
8 Steps to an Effective Career Plan
- Identify Your Career Options. Develop a refined list of career options by examining your interests, skills, and values through self-assessment . Narrow your career options by reviewing career information, researching companies , and talking to professionals in the field . You can further narrow your list when you take part in experiences such as shadowing, volunteering, and internships.
- Prioritize. It’s not enough to list options. You have to prioritize. What are your top skills? What interests you the most? What’s most important to you? Whether it’s intellectually challenging work, family-friendly benefits, the right location or a big paycheck, it helps to know what matters to you — and what’s a deal-breaker. We provide skills and values assessments — set up an appointment with a Career Advisor to take advantage of this service.
- Make Comparisons. Compare your most promising career options against your list of prioritized skills, interests and values.
- Consider Other Factors. You should consider factors beyond personal preferences. What is the current demand for this field? If the demand is low or entry is difficult, are you comfortable with risk? What qualifications are required to enter the field? Will it require additional education or training? How will selecting this option affect you and others in your life? Gather advice from friends, colleagues, and family members. Consider potential outcomes and barriers for each of your final options.
- Make a Choice. Choose the career paths that are best for you. How many paths you choose depends upon your situation and comfort level. If you’re early in your planning, then identifying multiple options may be best. You may want several paths to increase the number of potential opportunities. Conversely, narrowing to one or two options may better focus your job search or graduate school applications.
- S pecific — Identify your goal clearly and specifically.
- M easureable — Include clear criteria to determine progress and accomplishment.
- A ttainable — The goal should have a 50 percent or greater chance of success.
- R elevant — The goal is important and relevant to you.
- T ime bound — Commit to a specific timeframe.
- Create Your Career Action Plan. It’s important to be realistic about expectations and timelines. Write down specific action steps to take to achieve your goals and help yourself stay organized. Check them off as you complete them, but feel free to amend your career action plan as needed. Your goals and priorities may change, and that’s perfectly okay.
- Meet with a Career Advisor. Our advisors are here to help you make effective career decisions. Make an appointment on Handshake to talk about your career options and concerns.
- 4.3 Making a Plan
- 1.1 Why College?
- 1.2 The First Year of College Will Be an Experience
- 1.3 College Culture and Expectations
- 1.4 How Can This Book And This Course Help?
- Where do you go from here?
- 2.1 The Power to Learn
- 2.2 The Motivated Learner
- 2.3 It's All in the Mindset
- 2.4 Learning Preferences
- 2.5 Personality Types and Learning
- 2.6 Applying What You Know about Learning
- 2.7 The Hidden Curriculum
- Career Connection
- 3.1 The Benefits of Time Management
- 3.2 Time Management in College
- 3.3 Procrastination: The Enemy Within
- 3.4 How to Manage Time
- 3.5 Prioritization: Self-Management of What You Do and When You Do It
- 3.6 Goal Setting and Motivation
- 3.7 Enhanced Strategies for Time and Task Management
- 4.1 Defining Values and Setting Goals
- 4.2 Planning Your Degree Path
- 4.4 Managing Change and the Unexpected
- 5.1 The Nature and Types of Reading
- 5.2 Effective Reading Strategies
- 5.3 Taking Notes
- 6.2 Studying
- 6.3 Test Taking
- 7.1 What Thinking Means
- 7.2 Creative Thinking
- 7.3 Analytical Thinking
- 7.4 Critical Thinking
- 7.5 Problem-Solving
- 7.6 Metacognition
- 7.7 Information Literacy
- 8.1 An Overview of Communication
- 8.2 Purpose of Communication
- 8.3 Communication and Technology
- 8.4 The Context of Communication
- 8.5 Barriers to Effective Communication
- 9.1 What Is Diversity, and Why Is Everybody Talking About It?
- 9.2 Categories of Diversity
- 9.3 Navigating the Diversity Landscape
- 9.4 Inclusivity and Civility: What Role Can I Play?
- 10.1 Personal Financial Planning
- 10.2 Savings, Expenses, and Budgeting
- 10.3 Banking and Emergency Funds
- 10.4 Credit Cards and Other Debt
- 10.5 Education Debt: Paying for College
- 10.6 Defending against Attack: Securing Your Identity and Accounts
- 11.1 Taking Care of Your Physical Health
- 11.3 Taking Care of Your Emotional Health
- 11.4 Taking Care of Your Mental Health
- 11.5 Maintaining Healthy Relationships
- 11.6 Your Safety
- 12.1 Why Worry about a Career While I'm in College?
- 12.2 Your Map to Success: The Career Planning Cycle
- 12.3 Where Can You Go from Here?
- A | Conducting and Presenting Research
- B | Recommended Readings
- C | Activities and Artifacts From the Book
Questions to Consider:
- What resources are available to help me understand my degree program requirements?
- Who can assist me in making a plan?
- What tools are available to help me develop and track the progress of my plan?
- Is there anything else I can do now to plan for after I graduate?
As previously noted, most associate’s degrees require a minimum of 60 credit hours for completion, and bachelor’s degrees minimally require a total of 120 credits. Some individuals refer to these degrees as “two-year” and “four-year” degrees, respectively. To complete a 60-credit associate’s degree in two years, you would need to take 15 credits (about five classes) in the fall and spring semesters during both years of your attendance. To complete a 120-credit bachelor’s degree in four years, you would need to take 15 credits in the fall and spring semesters each of your four years. It is therefore entirely possible to complete these degrees in two and four years, particularly if you use the three primary resources that colleges provide to help you with your planning: curriculum maps, academic advisors, and interactive planning technology.
Many colleges and universities will provide curriculum maps , or course checklists to illustrate the sequence of courses necessary to follow this timeline. These timelines often assume that you are ready to take college-level math and English courses and that you will be attending college as a full-time student. If placement tests demonstrate a need for prerequisite math and English coursework to get you up to speed, your timeline will likely be longer.
Many students attend college part-time, often because of family or work responsibilities. This will obviously have an impact on your completion timeline as well. Programs that have special requirements may also require that you plan for additional time. For example, it may be the case that you cannot take other courses while completing clinicals or student teaching, so you will need to plan accordingly. Alternatively, you may be able to speed up, or accelerate , your timeline to degree by taking courses during summer or winter terms. Or if you take fewer than 15 credits per semester, you can take courses during the summer terms to “make up” those credits and stay on track toward those two- or four-year graduation goals. 4
All colleges and universities provide resources such as a curriculum map to assist you with your academic planning. Academic advisors may also be called success coaches, mentors, preceptors, or counselors. They may be staff members, or faculty may provide advisement as an additional role to their teaching responsibilities. Regardless of what your college calls this role, academic advisors are individuals who are able to assist you in navigating the puzzle of your academic plan and piecing your courses and requirements together with your other life obligations to help you meet your goals.
An advisor is an expert on college and major requirements and policies, while you are the expert on your life circumstances and your ability to manage your study time and workload. It is also an advisor’s responsibility to understand the details of your degree requirements. This person can teach you how to best utilize college resources to make decisions about your academic and career path. An advisor can help you connect with other college staff and faculty who might be integral to supporting your success. Together with your advisor, you can create a semester-by-semester plan for the courses you will take and the special requirements you will meet. Refer to the end of this section for a detailed planning template that you could use in this process. Even if your college does not require advising, it is wise to meet with your advisor every semester to both check your progress and learn about new opportunities that might lend you competitive advantage in entering your career.
Common Functions of Academic Advisors
Academic advisors can help you:
- Set educational and career goals
- Select a major and/or minor
- Understand the requirements of your degree
- Navigate the online tools that track the progress of your degree
- Calculate your GPA and understand how certain choices may impact your GPA
- Discuss your academic progress from semester to semester
- Assist with time management strategies
- Connect with other support and resources at the college such as counseling, tutoring, and career services
- Navigate institutional policies such as grade appeals, admission to special programs, and other concerns
- Strategize how to make important contacts with faculty or other college administrators and staff as necessary (such as discussing how to construct professional emails)
- Discuss transfer options, if applicable
- Prepare for graduate school applications
Interactive Planning Technology
In addition to a curriculum map and an advisor, colleges and universities usually have technological tools that can assist you in your academic planning. Degree audit reporting systems, for example, are programmed to align with degree requirements and can track individual student progress toward completion. They function like an interactive checklist of courses and special requirements. Student planning systems often allow students to plan multiple semesters online, to register for planned courses, and to track the progress of their plan. Though friends and family are well-intentioned in providing students with planning advice and can provide important points for students to consider, sometimes new students make the mistake of following advice without consulting their college’s planning resources. It’s important to bring all of these resources together as you craft your individual plan.
Despite all of the resources and planning assistance that is available to you, creating an individual plan can still be a daunting task. Making decisions about which major to pursue, when to take certain courses, and whether to work while attending school may all have an impact on your success, and it is tough to anticipate what to expect when you’re new to college. Taking the time to create a plan and to revise it when necessary is essential to making well-informed, mindful decisions. Spur-of-the-moment decisions that are not well-informed can have lasting consequences to your progress.
The key to making a mindful decision is to first be as informed as possible about your options. Make certain that you have read the relevant resources and discussed the possibilities with experts at your college. Then you’ll want to weigh your options against your values and goals. You might ask: Which option best fits my values and priorities? What path will help me meet my goals in the timeframe I desire? What will be the impact of my decision on myself or on others? Being well-informed, having a clear sense of purpose, and taking the necessary time to make a thoughtful decision will help to remove the anxiety associated with making the “right” decision, and help you make the best decision for you.
Academic Planning Readiness Checklist: Review the checklist below and mark each item if you agree. For those you cannot yet answer, consult your instructor, academic advisor, or college website to locate these important details.
- I know the total number of credits required to graduate from my program.
- I know the difference between general education, major, and elective classes.
- I know whether I am required to take preparatory or developmental courses in math and English, and whether these courses will count among my total credits toward my degree.
- I am aware of the special requirements of my major (if any) and the prerequisites I must complete.
- I am aware of the minimum entry requirements for my desired career field and know whether I should be preparing to plan for a graduate degree as well.
Draft an Academic Plan
With the assistance of your instructor or academic advisor, find the curriculum map for your major or for an example major that you might be considering if you’re still exploring. Use the information in the curriculum map to draft an academic plan for your undergraduate degree. This plan should include both a semester-by-semester sequence of courses and a list of related activities to help you progress toward your career or graduate school goals. Keep in mind any personal circumstances that may impact your plan (such as whether you’ll need to attend part-time or full-time). You may use the grid provided or utilize your college’s student planning software if available. For your reference, you will find the start of an example grid from a dedicated environmental science student below.
Note: If your college offers courses using the quarter system rather than semesters, you may need to draft your own grid. You can find example planning grids for quarter systems online.
Planning for After Graduation
Students usually pursue a college degree with some additional end goal in mind, whether that goal is further study as a graduate student or entry into a desired career. As you develop a plan for your undergraduate studies, you can also plan pursuits outside of the classroom to prepare for these future goals. To begin planning for life after graduation, consider the experiences that would best complement your coursework. If you are not required to participate in fieldwork or internships, perhaps you could plan a summer internship to help you gain workplace experience and learn more about what you do and do not want to do. It is also valuable to gain leadership experience through participation in student clubs and organizations. Plan to find a club that matches your interests. Set a goal to attend regularly your first year and then run for a club leadership role in your second or third year.
Even before you begin an internship or career search in earnest, sites like Internships.com can be helpful simply to explore the possibilities and get ideas. Often, a dedicated career-oriented website will provide more filtered and specific information than a general search engine.
Consult with services or offices at your college that can assist with you with making your future plans and incorporating experiences into your academic plan that will prepare you to enter your career. These services are often accessible both to current students as well as to graduates, providing assistance with résumé writing and job searches. Chapter 12: Planning for Your Future provides further insight into career planning and college career services.
Alumni associations help graduates connect with other former students of all ages so that they can begin to build and strengthen their professional networks, leading to further job opportunities. And don’t discount the role of your professors in helping you build your network as well! In addition to providing valuable letters of recommendation for both graduate school and job applications, professors often have well-established professional networks and may be willing to help connect dedicated students with additional opportunities. You can plan these experiences to be distributed across your academic semesters and during the summer.
This Draft an Academic Plan activity provides you an opportunity to consider and plan experiences alongside your coursework that could help you better prepare to meet your career goals. Also, the chapter on Planning Your Career goes into these topics in more depth.
- 4 Brookdale Community College Office of Career and Leadership Development. (2016). Your Career Checklist . Retrieved from: http://www.brookdalecc.edu/career
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College and Career Planning
Chancellor Banks has outlined a bold vision for New York City: through a reimagined student experience that centers career-connected learning, all students will reach long-term economic security. NYC Public Schools have many supports in place to ensure that all students graduate from high school ready for college and the 21st-century workforce.
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Continue doing the activities mentioned above, and:
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- Visit the Graduation Requirements page to learn more about credits and state exams that your child needs to graduate from high school.
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- Help your child prepare for the SAT . Some colleges also require students to take a college entrance test called the ACT.
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For students who plan to continue their education beyond high school, it’s important to learn as much as you can about disability services at your institution of higher education (IHE) of choice as each IHE offers different types of support. Most IHE campuses have some version of an Office of Disability Services, which coordinates the provision of reasonable accommodations and support services for students with disabilities. A student’s need for reasonable accommodation and/or support services is verified by these offices. Some examples of supports that may be provided include:
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- Unlike in grades K-12, colleges or universities are not required to provide modifications to the content that students are required to learn
- Schools must support transition planning for all with IEPs . For students considering higher education, IEP teams must:
- As early as the student’s first year of high school, advise students and families on the difference between accommodations in K-12 vs. higher education
- Ensure that students who plan to continue their education beyond high school understand the process to obtain disability support from their IHE of choice, if needed
- Support students in locating the disability office at the IHE of their choice
- Provide students and families information on the NYCDOE’s Transition & College and Access Centers, which can support students with this process.
Educators can find resources to support students in college and career planning on WeTeachNYC . You can also read about graduation requirements and college entrance exams .
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When you decide to go to college, you are committing to make a significant investment of time and money. To help you make a wise investment, you will need to determine which careers interest you and what education you will need for those careers. Students who enter college already knowing what kind of work they want to do and what classes they need to take have a better chance of finishing college. This Career Planning unit will help you to establish your career and educational goals.
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Occupational exploration, self-exploration, educational planning.
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- Cambridge University Press - PMC COVID-19 Collection
Simplifying the Measurement of College Students’ Career Planning: the Development of Career Student Planning Scale during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Dr. xiaoping wang.
1 Second Xiangya Hospital, Department of psychiatry, 139 Renmin Middle Road, Changsha, Hunan, China, 410011
Magnus A. Gray
1 School of Social & Behavioral Sciences, University of Arkansas at Monticello, 562 University Drive, Monticello, Arkansas 71656, USA
2 Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center, Presidio of Monterey, Monterey, CA93944, USA
Data for the experiments that is reported here is available upon request. The experiment was not preregistered.
Peer Review Summary
We created a new, 8-item scale called “Career Student Planning Scale (CSPS)” for a valid and reliable measure regarding college students’ career planning during a traumatic event, such as a pandemic. CSPS is conceptually similar to the career decision-making difficulty questionnaire (CDDQ) and the career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) scale. CSPS leans towards questions about college students’ perceptions about career planning, rather than intuitions about career decision-making; it also inquires about how participants conceptualize about their career plans to be correct, rather than the more extreme idea about how their intuitions are correct: we developed this scale to capture the latter construct. We included the coronavirus anxiety scale (CAS), CDDQ, the general procrastination scale (GPS), and the CDSE short form (CDSE-SF) as covariates to ensure that CSPS has distinct effects on their career paths. Our findings indicate the CSPS has acceptable psychometric properties and demonstrates a valuable input to those measures.
Given the extensive threats caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, college students’ mental health and career planning have become critical priorities across university campuses. Due to the novelty of this pandemic, little has been investigated on the relationship between coronavirus-related anxiety and young adults’ career decision making. Mahmud et al. ( 2020 ) found that fear of COVID-19 impacts career decisions through its inherent depression issues. This coincides with other empirical findings that show (a) young adults are more anxious about their careers, and (b) this anxiety has an impact on future career plans (Campagna & Curtis, 2007 ; Mojgan et al., 2011 ). Furthermore, Işik’s ( 2012 ) study showed there is a significantly negative relationship between career decision-making self-efficacy and trait anxiety. Together, these studies indicate that anxiety affects both young adults and college students with their careers, which is why we examine whether coronavirus anxiety affects both career planning and indecision. Career measures, like the career decision-making difficulty questionnaire (CDDQ) and the career decision-making self-efficacy scale (short form) (CDSE-SF) are widely used psychometric assessments, but how researchers quantify young adults’ attitudes regarding career planning has scarcely been explored (Gati et al., 1996 ; Gray et al., 2020 ; Lee et al., 2018 ; Tomaszek & Muchacka-Cymerman, 2020 ).
Psychometric assessment has an important role in health assessment and research. We created the 8-item college student planning scale (CSPS) to better quantify these variables. CSPS examines college students’ career plans to identify those affected with the pandemic’s uncertainty with most issues, including occupations and careers. We also investigated the degree to which CSPS relates to pre-existing and validated measures (i.e., the coronavirus anxiety scale [CAS], CDDQ, general procrastination scale [GPS], and the career decision self-efficacy scale [CDSE-SF]) during the recent pandemic. We examined the CSPS’s factorial structure and internal validity to better establish psychometric validation of the measure.
Participants ( N =101) were originally recruited at small, liberal arts colleges in southeast Arkansas and southern California, except that one failed to answer some questions—which was excluded. Each participant voluntarily participated in the study, which was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Arkansas at Monticello and carried out with APA ethical standards. All participants received a copy of the consent form at the beginning of the study, and we provided debriefing after its completion. They completed the CSPS, CDDQ, GPS, and CDSE-SF in an online format and received extra credit for their involvement. The order of each questionnaire was randomized per participant to avoid an order effect. One-hundred participants were included for data analysis ( M = 22.25, SD = 6.6; 77 females and 22 males). There were 25 Black (or African-American), 67 White, and 7 identifying with “others.” Four were listed as college freshmen, 34 were sophomores, 26 were juniors, and 33 were seniors enrolled full-time. Two listed having post-baccalaureate degrees.
A simple regression analysis was conducted to see how CSPS relates to CDDQ and CDSE-SF. The coefficient alpha of CSPS was 0.85, which is a desirable value as a measure, according to Cortina ( 1993 ). The CSPS’ significant correlation coefficients used solid planning ( r = .29, p < .01) and management ( r = .28, p < .01) showing potential validity evidence of its content, whether it is valid to the extent of planning management. After assessing reliability and validity of the CSPS, a regression analysis was conducted for the impact of CAS on CSPS. Two simple regressions of the CSPS were conducted to see the impact of the CDDQ and CDSE-SF.
In all analyses, data from the CSPS, CAS, CDDQ, GPS, and CDSE-SF were used as continuous variables. Correlation coefficients among variables are shown in Table 1 . CAS consists of 5 items, so we assume the measure has a tendency to assess anxiety related to COVID-19. Results of the first simple linear regression indicates that the effect between the CAS and CSPS was insignificant. The skewness value, 3.24, indicates a positively skewed response trend. Significant findings were assessed when examining the CSPS’s correlations with CDDQ, GPS, and CDSE (see Table 1 ).
Correlations between CSPS, CDSE-SF, GPS, and CAS
p < .001 ‘***’, p < .01 ‘**’, p < .05 ‘*’
We also examined the factor structure among the given measures. Table 2 shows the item-level descriptive scale and internal consistency estimates among CSPS, CDSE-SF, GPS, CDDQ, and CAS. In the two regression analyses for CSPS, the new measure had a strong impact on CDDQ and CDSE-SF. The first CSPS simple linear regression indicated a significant effect on CDSE-SF, (F(1, 98) = 37.19, p < .001, R 2 = .28) and how CSPS was a strong predictor (t = 6.1, p < .001) of the model. The second CSPS-SF simple linear regression concluded there was a similarly significant effect on CDDQ, (F(1, 98) = 27.67, p < .001, R 2 = .22) and that CSPS was also a significant predictor (t = -5.3, p < .001) of the model.
Internal consistency estimates of CSPS, CDSE-SF, GPS, CDDQ, and CAS
The current study examined the correlation between CSPS, CAS, CDDQ, GPS, and CDSE-SF. We first examined how COVID-19 anxiety affects college students and career planning; however, no correlation was shown between them. The results suggest that CAS is case-sensitive, so we caution against its use as a measure of anxiety for the general population. The CAS was newly developed in April 2020 when COVID-19 peaked and participants were a bit older (Lee, 2020 ). Previous literature shows a relationship between anxiety and career indecision (Campagna & Curtis, 2007 ; Işik, 2012 ; Mojgan et al., 2011 ; Tomaszek & Muchacka-Cymerman, 2020 ), so future research must focus on the correlation between generalized anxiety and career planning. More independent studies that investigate the psychometric properties of the CSPS are also necessary to establish the scientific rigor of this research.
No significant relationship was found between the CAS and CSPS, but our findings suggest moderate-sized correlations between CSPS-SF and CDDQ, and GPS and CDSE. A significant negative correlation was found between CSPS and CDDQ ( r = -.47, p < .001). This suggests that college students will face fewer career difficulties if they plan for their future careers, possibly with some backup vocations. We found that the CSPS is negatively correlated with the GPS ( r = -.27, p < .001), suggesting that factors related to procrastination may instigate career planning as well as decision difficulties. A significant positive relationship was found between the CSPS and CDSE-SF ( r = .52, p < .001), indicating how adequate planning for a future career may allow college students to feel more confident about this decision. Overall, our study shows that CSPS can be a reliable, unidimensional construct for career planning in university samples, along with the general population.
6. Conclusion and Future Directions
This study serves as a psychometric analysis of the CSPS during the COVID-19 pandemic. Coronavirus-related anxiety has been a serious issue affecting young adults’ career planning and decisions, so we attempted to assess if COVID-19 anxiety affects the relationship between CSPS, CDDQ, GPS, and CDSE-SF among U.S. college students. The CAS was created for researchers and health professionals to identify anxiety and uncertainty in this growing pandemic, so the quality of our measures will hopefully provide solid evidence of how these measures were in fact examined, helping researchers select the best assessment plan.
One possible explanation about not finding a significant relationship between CAS and CSPS could be that young adults do not have an excessive fear of death, on which the 5 items of CAS specifically focus. All items ask about one’s physiologically-based anxiety reaction to COVID-19-related symptoms, which many young adults may not experience. Future studies will examine generalized anxiety with these measures about whether generalized anxiety is predictive of the actual population, rather than their current involvement with the recent pandemic.
We found interesting relationships between the CSPS and other measures in this study (i.e., the CDDQ, GPS, and CDSE-SF). In conclusion, the CSPS is a promising measure with relevance to college students. The higher scores of the CDSE correspond to higher levels of CSPS, which may contribute to growing mental symptoms, suggesting that without proper planning, this can lead to distraction in daily situations, such as college learning.
The current study represents a measurement of career planning, which will help us conduct future research related to college students’ mental health and professional development, with a mediation-based personality theory and career framework. The assessment of psychometric properties promotes the selection of valid and reliable instruments, so that researchers can ensure the internal validity of their results. An empirical investigation on how COVID-19-related anxiety impacts college students and their career plans should contribute to the current literature and to future researchers involved with the COVID-19 pandemic.
We thank Drs. Jennifer Miller and Hyowon Ban for assistance with data collection, as well as Dr. Carol Zurcher for carefully reviewing and editing the manuscript. We are deeply grateful to them for their encouragement and support.
This article has been accepted because it is deemed to be scientifically sound, has the correct controls, has appropriate methodology and is statistically valid, and has been sent for additional statistical evaluation and met required revisions.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
This work was supported by the Arkansas Department of Higher Education as a form of student undergraduate research fellowship [SURF] (MG & SL, grant number 544060-2100-212111).
MG, MK, and SL conceived and designed the study. MG and SL conducted data collection, MG and MK performed statistical analysis, and MG, MK, and SL wrote the article.
Data availability statement
Compliance with ethical standards.
The authors assert that all procedures contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the relevant national and institutional committees on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, revised in 2008.
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Review 1: Simplifying the Measurement of College Students’ Career Planning: the Development of Career Student Planning Scale during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Dr. teresa ober.
University of Notre Dame, Department of Psychology, E418 Corbett Family Hall, Notre Dame, Indiana, United States, 46556
Comments to the Author: Thank you for focusing your research question on such a timely and applied problem. I could see several clear uses and implications of these findings. Nevertheless, I have a few hesitations about the current draft as outlined below.
-Given the brevity of the article, I think the introduction as written is fairly successful in justifying the study and providing background.
-Further details about the participants would be helpful (e.g., age, gender, class they were enrolled in or college majors, etc.). This could be included as a table to spare the word count.
-Were the questions randomized or asked in a fixed order? I ask because it could impact an order effect.
-Since part of the aim of this paper is to examine the factor structure, it would be great to see information about the item-level scale descriptives and internal consistency estimates.
-I am not sure what this sentence means and was hoping for a further explanation, perhaps with a citation: “No significant relationship between CAS and our newly developed measure (i.e., the CSPS) was found due to the time sensitivity of CAS.
-Some grammatical issues here and there. For example,
--“CSPS leans toward questions...” I think should read, “CSPS leans towards questions…”
--“CAS developed by Lee (2020) is also relative to a new measure,…” I think should read, “CAS developed by Lee (2020) is also a relaively new measure…”
Is the article written in clear and proper English? 30% 4/5
Is the data presented in the most useful manner? 40% 3/5
Does the paper cite relevant and related articles appropriately? 30% 4/5
Does the title suitably represent the article? 25% 5/5
Does the abstract correctly embody the content of the article? 25% 4/5
Does the introduction give appropriate context? 25% 4/5
Is the objective of the experiment clearly defined? 25% 4/5
Does the discussion adequately interpret the results presented? 40% 3/5
Is the conclusion consistent with the results and discussion? 40% 4/5
Are the limitations of the experiment as well as the contributions of the experiment clearly outlined? 20% 3/5
Review 2: Simplifying the Measurement of College Students’ Career Planning: the Development of Career Student Planning Scale during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Comments to the Author: 1）The references cited in the introducyion seem susceptible, for example, how could the two early studies in 2007 and 2011 address COVID-19-related depression/anxiety and their impact on students’ future career planning? The introduction could be benefited greatly through involving more studies that were conducted in recent years and have used more reliable research methods to explain how anxiety impacts career decision-making, instead of simply leaving one correlational conclusion obtained in 2012. If such evidence is unavailable, then the importance of the whole topic will be in question.
2) The introduction does not specify on how the new scale is different from other scales (CDDQ, CDSE-SF) and why the authors bother to develop a new scale. What unique advantages can CSPS bring, at least theoretically? What academic or practical gap does this 8-item scale fill?
3) The introduction and objective sections are repetitive. Please integrate the contents into one section.
4) The authors just recruited 100 participants. Is this sample size predefined or naturally obtained? If it’s predefined, please justify it (i.e. the method of calculating sample size).
5) What method on earth did the authors use to demonstrate the unifactorial structure of CSPS?
6) Please provide detailed descriptions for all the scales used in this manuscript. It is also necessary to report the internal consistency reliability of each measurement found in the current study.
7) How can the correlations with these two factors justify the validity of the new scale? Please provide more robust evidence to establish the validity and move all the calculations in methods to the results section.
8) Due to the disproportionate gender composition, it is necessary to control gender as a covariance in the regression analysis.
9) Please provide ethical details for this study.
10) I would hesitate calling the CSPS “a psychometrically robust measure… in college samples from general population” based on the current evidence, since the psychometric properties of this scale remain questionable based on the current sample size and statistical analysis.
Is the article written in clear and proper English? 30% 3/5
Is the data presented in the most useful manner? 40% 2/5
Does the paper cite relevant and related articles appropriately? 30% 3/5
Does the title suitably represent the article? 25% 4/5
Does the abstract correctly embody the content of the article? 25% 2/5
Does the introduction give appropriate context? 25% 3/5
Is the objective of the experiment clearly defined? 25% 3/5
Is the conclusion consistent with the results and discussion? 40% 3/5
Are the limitations of the experiment as well as the contributions of the experiment clearly outlined? 20% 2/5
Career Preparation for College Students: Getting Started
Most students expect to work after college graduation. However, your job search shouldn't begin when you graduate. Career planning and preparation should occur throughout your college studies. You do not need to settle on one area to pursue right away, and you can change directions. But be sure to prepare for the long run — for your lifelong career or multiple careers.
There is a myth that if you have a college degree, you have a job. The fact is that it takes the average college graduate three to six months to secure employment after graduation. You need a career-seeking strategy and a little experience. Otherwise, you're likely to be just another résumé in a stack of hundreds.
As a future employee, a college student with a disability faces unique challenges. Like other students, you need to find a way to meet the specific qualifications of the desired job. You also need to demonstrate that you have transferable skills — in other words, skills you've acquired through education and previous work experiences. Transferable skills include communication, trouble shooting, decision making, leadership, and problem solving. These are some of the skills that cross jobs, careers, and industries. Opportunities to acquire these skills are available on campuses nationwide.
Why Participate in Work-Based Learning?
Work-based learning experiences can help choose careers, network with potential employers, select courses of study, and develop job skills directly relevant to future employment. Through the interaction of study and work experience, you can enhance your academic knowledge, personal development, and professional preparation. Specifically, work-based learning opportunities can help you:
- Apply practical theories from classroom work.
- Clarify academic and career interests.
- Develop human relations skills through interaction with coworkers.
- Develop job search skills.
- Develop résumés and cover letters.
- Earn academic credit.
- Gain contacts for employment after graduation.
- Gain exposure to specialized facilities not available on campus.
- Identify career assistance programs.
- Pay for your education.
As a student with a disability, work-based learning can also give you a chance to practice disclosing your disability and requesting accommodations from potential employers as well as determine which accommodations work best for you.
Many colleges offer programs that help students gain work experience before graduation. Offerings vary from campus to campus. You will need to do some research to find those best suited to you. Work-based learning options found at many post-secondary institutions include internships, cooperative education, job shadowing, service learning, independent study, informational interviews, and career services. Below are descriptions of typical services these programs offer.
What Is An Internship?
An internship is a time-limited intensive learning experience outside of the traditional classroom. You are placed in a supervised work-based learning situation with employers for planned learning activities. Internships give you broad overviews of occupational fields while providing opportunities to experience work responsibilities and develop work readiness skills. College credit may be provided, depending on your academic program.
What Is Cooperative Education?
Cooperative education programs work with students, faculty, staff, and employers to help students clarify career and academic goals and expand classroom study by participating in paid, practical work experiences. These programs provide opportunities to work in trainee positions in your fields of interest and to gain career-related experience as a part of your academic programs. Academic credit may be arranged.
What Is Job Shadowing?
Job shadowing, where you visit a business to observe one or more positions, provides you with a realistic view of one or more occupations. You observe essential functions of occupational areas of interest. Experiences vary in time from one hour to a full day, depending on the amount of time employers can provide, as well as your level of interest. Job-shadowing experiences offer opportunities for career exploration. However, they do not typically generate academic credit.
What Is Service Learning?
Service learning programs offer you opportunities to become a concerned, informed, and productive citizen by providing community service in non paid, volunteer positions. These programs increase the relevancy of academic learning by giving you opportunities to apply knowledge and skills while making contributions to your local community. Academic credit may or may not be arranged, depending on your field of study.
What Is an Independent Study?
It is often possible for you to earn academic credit for work experiences outside of a structured career-based program. Many academic programs allow independent studies as optional program components. If you choose to take this option, you would work one-on-one with an individual faculty member to develop projects for credit. Projects can range from research papers to work experience within your field of study. Work experience, coupled with documentation such as a journal or paper, is an excellent way to practice and demonstrate the skills you've learned in college.
What Is an Informational Interview?
Informational interviews, where you meet with people working in your chosen careers to ask questions about particular occupations or companies, allow you to gain personal perspectives on your career interests. Through informational interviews, you can learn more about your career interests from the people who work in the field every day. Those experiences do not typically generate academic credit.
What Is Career Services?
A career services office provides a variety of career and job search services to students and alumni. It acts as a liaison between students, alumni, faculty, staff, and prospective employers by organizing campus interviews, employer information, and career fairs. Many career services offices also provide job listings and job lines for students and alumni to access in their search for employment. Some help students develop career plans and job search skills through individual counseling and job search workshops.
Which Employers Participate in Work-Based Learning?
Federal and state agencies and public, private, and nonprofit businesses seek college students for placements across the country and overseas. The majority of opportunities are for sophomores and above, but some employers also offer opportunities to freshmen and high school students as well. Microsoft, Boeing, USDA Forest Service, Weyerhaeuser, IBM, NASA, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, and the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities are just a few of the thousands of employers nationwide who offer valuable work-based learning opportunities to students.
Who Are the Team Players?
Many work-based learning opportunity providers are committed to assisting all students, including students with disabilities, as they prepare to enter the professional world. If you are...
A college student with a disability:
- Register with campus work-based learning programs, such as career services and cooperative education, so they can notify you of work-based learning opportunities.
- Participate in available orientations, seminars, workshops, and individual counseling sessions to effectively enhance your job search skills.
- Let the work-based learning and disabled student services coordinators know what types of accommodations you may need to effectively perform in a work setting.
- Access local support networks and disability services organizations that may be able to aid you in your job search.
- Update your position announcements and notify work-based learning coordinators of new positions.
- Work in partnership with work-based learning centers to proactively develop strategies to encourage students with disabilities to participate in your work environment.
- Educate your staff regarding diversity.
A faculty member, staff, teacher, or counselor:
- Encourage students with disabilities to gain work experiences.
- Invite staff members from cooperative education, career services, and other campus programs to speak to your classes.
- Encourage employers to recruit students with disabilities for work opportunities.
Disabled student services:
- Encourage students to register and participate in work-based learning programs on campus.
- Be proactive in students' academic and career plans.
- Let them know how accommodations are provided in the workplace.
- Help campus work-based learning programs recruit and accommodate students with disabilities.
How Can You Get Started?
- C is for Careers . Think about what interests you. Be imaginative, then narrow down the list.
- A is for Academics . Determine which academic programs best suit your career goals.
- R is for Research . Research careers that spark your interests, maximize your strengths, and minimize your weaknesses.
- EE is for Experiential Education . Practice job search skills. Apply for internships, service learning, cooperative education programs, or other work-based learning opportunities.
- RS is for Relevant Skills . Use on-the-job experience to learn practical "real world" skills. Apply what you've learned in school to the workplace. Test which accommodations work best for you.
A short video, It's Your Career , may be freely viewed online along with a publication by the same title. It can be purchased in DVD format from DO-IT.
Questions and answers, case studies, and promising practices can be found in the searchable The Employment Office Knowledge Base .
For websites and online resources that provide information on accommodations, disclosure, and advice for people with disabilities who wish to start their own business, see the Employment page of Disability Related Resources on the Internet.